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they have all the same expressionless pentameter, as in the preceding verses, and no ditch, or nettle, nor kustochkov, not koček, no crocodiles, no elephants - nothing, single image, but the bare - truly abstract - phrases:

But every language constrained by fear,
What a melancholy spectacle!

And the same hackneyed rhymes moldy: light – bright, donkeys – monkeys, kittens – mittens, crocodile – smile, to whom our frosts and roses seem innovatively fresh.
in short, assigned me a text "Cockroach" has nothing to do with the authentic text, which I hasten to say not so much in their own interests, but in the interest of our common cause: mutual exchange of benign literary production.
feeling, I was doing not very polite, since one of the interpreters, Mrs. Miriam Morton, He treated me and my literary work in extremely kindly and friendly.
Translation of "Cockroach" is made by it together with Mrs. Naina Uiren (The wire) and included in its article, where my children and not children's books presented to American readers in the most attractive light. AND, of course, I am sincerely grateful to Mrs Morton for her kindness, but I can not keep silent about the deep longing, I experienced, reading its translation.
English is perfectly suited for our literary translation of poetry and prose. But as soon it comes to children's poetry, here under the pen from inept amateurs, he immediately becomes weak and lame.

II

Poems for children is much more difficult to translate, poem than for adults. First of all it is due to the fact, what, given the sensitivity of the ear of a minor to the phonetics of each word, children's writers equip their poems maximum amount of fresh, sonorous, dynamic rhyming. And the word, which serve rhymes in children's poems, - these are the main carriers of meaning. They bear the greatest brunt of semantics. Так, the ending of my "phone" would be lost and that portion of their expressive, which has in it, if it had not relied on such soldered together three consonance:

Oh, it is not an easy job -
From swamp to drag the hippopotamus.

Without these three chords (and without this rhythm, expresses the exhaustion of serious efforts) poetry does not exist. But the English translator of "telephone" not in the least troubled by this: it takes away from my poetry and rhyme and rhythm (that is, absolutely everything, which gave them the breath of life) and offers readers such rickety row:

By golly it’s really a job
To pull Hippo out of the bog!

You have to be deaf and dumb, to think, though in this translation have at least some semblance of the original!
Of course, for foreign children, these deaf poems have no appeal.
Rather than promote the work of the Soviet author, such transfers can only ward off from him. "Moidodyr" translated into English much decency, but there are the same verses deaf. Quatrain, in which five chords, It sets out in blank verse:

Every morning, bright and early
All the little mice go washing
And the kittens and the ducklings
And the ants and spiders, too.

Is English, language Edward Lear, Lewis Carroll, TS. Eliot and Allen Milne, so wretchedly poor, that it can not find harmonies even such unpretentious, prostetskyh styshkov:

Early in the morning at dawn
wash kittens,
And utyata, and pups,
And bugs, and Paučková ...

III

And another serious illness, from which a terminally suffer many translators of children's poems: loquacity, incontinence of speech. Там, where in the script - lonely, modest word, they pile dozens of cheeky and unruly words, completely obscure the original. From this cruel method of the hardest hit my tale "Crocodile". This tale begins in the script:

There lived
Crocodile.
He walked through the streets.
Papirosy kuril,
Turkish speaking.

And these few lines in an English translation cluttered with a bunch of words-parasites:

one important (nadmennыy) crocodile left his home on the Nile,
So in style (in style) walk on Bull Island-ru.
He could smoke, he was able with great emphasis (!) speak Turkish.
(What he had done once a week) –
It is very important, green, dotted with warts, brave Crocodile.

Little children, as known, not at all interested in the epithets, they need not quality, but actions. speech, facing them, It must be dynamic and rapid. I would change myself, if even I think to burden her story worthless nonsense about, that the crocodile was
First of all, green,
Secondly, warty,
Third - arrogant and important,
Fourth - dashing, sporty.
The same text parasitic weighed down words and phrases leading interpreter indication of the fact, that every hour and every day the crocodile spoke in Turkish, but just once in a week (?!), and that he was an excellent pronons (the perfect streak), and that he was not just walking, but I sauntered in style (in style), and that the Nile had, remained flat.
Там, where I have a thirteen words, the translator - forty-three!
More than tripled! Two hundred and fifty per cent of the gag! As if the whole purpose of the interpreter tell a bigger piece of cake, just enough to have a good laugh with cheap rhymes:

Once a haughty Crocodile left his home upon the Nile
To go strolling off in style on the Av-e-nue.
He could smoke and he could speak Turkish in a perfect streak.
(And he did it once a week), –
The most haughty, green and warty, very sporty Crocodile.

There is an English translation of the "Crocodile", made by Mr. Richard Coe . This translation of "Crocodile" begins:

There once was a crocodile
(Step!
Step!
Crocodile!),
Crocodile elegant and chic,
The elegant suit.
He walked on Piccadilly,
Singing cheerful songs in Swahili,
Shod in socks, which he bought in Chile.
He was smoking a pipe, made from the root of Erica.
Crocodile!
Crocodile!
Step!
Step!
Crocodile!
Alexander Crocodile, eskvayr.

In English it sounds like:

Once there was a Crocodile
Croc!
Croc!
Crocodile!
A Crocodile of taste and style.
And elegant attire;
He strolled down Piccadilly,
Singing carols in Swahili,
Wearing spats he’d bought in Chile,
And a-puffing at a briar
Crocodile!
Crocodile!
Croc!
Crocodile
Alexander Crocodile, Esquire.

Instead of cheap ragged old rhyming translation is chosen exotic rare rhymes: Chile, Swahili, Pikkadilli, but the basis remains the same: lawless desire to pile up perhaps more empty catchwords, so that the author was brought before the reader as an indefatigable talker, flaunting feigned playfulness and feigned playfulness.
To the readers, it became clear, some heavy damage is done to children's poems with such translation system, I give one fantastic occasion.
Imagine, that some Soviet translator will play for the Russian readers of poetry Dr. Seuss (Seuss), favorite American children. He has a funny tale "The Cat in the hood" («The Cat in the Hat») , in which small children in the rain talking:

And we had one:
Sit! Sit! Sit! Sit
And we did not like it
not a scrap.

And now imagine, what would have happened with these simple and concise lines, if they appeared in the Moscow publishing house in this translation:

We sat on the couch,
We talked about Mdivani,
About fountain
In Hindustan,
About beauty Zeinab,
And as long as, like in the bath,
As if in a bath tub of
dripped rain
wart!
wart!
wart!
And dripped our pickup.

While working on the translation of children's poems, you are deprived of the right to resort to the liberties, as the rapid pace of poems hinder weighed down the text so unwieldy ballast.
In general, it would be very useful for our common cause, if foreign translators of poetry for children a chance to study the techniques and methods S.Ya.. Marshak in his translations: English folk songs (eg, "We lost kittens on the road gloves"), "The Ballad of the royal sandwich" And. Milna, "Camel hump", "If the cabin windows", "On the distant Amazon" P. Kipling - and a great many other masterpieces of foreign, created for the happiness of kids.
If someone we tried to speak with an English text translation, It took up arms against him to all our criticism, and literary honor of Dr. Seuss would have been saved. Meanwhile, something I have not heard, to anyone in the US or in the UK stood up for the honor of our Russian poems for children, reproduced with the same disdain to script. After all, when we translate into Russian children's poem by Kipling, or Alena Milna, or Edward Lear, or Rodary, or Ogden Nash, or Vazha Pshavela, we in good faith are fighting over, possible to more accurately convey and style, and rhythm, and the images of the original text, and this affects our respect for him.
But what kind of respect can there be, if our texts distort as someone pleases and arbitrariness translators borders with fist violence.
Here we are completely exposed. Whether it is time to negotiate with the foreign friends of our children's literature on the principles, that they should be guided by, that, in spite of their subjective intentions, translations do not fall into such a blatant disagreement with scripts.
First of all, you must recreate the translated text to be translated word painting. Secondly, It should be kept to a minimum percentage of gag. When you translate a poem for adults (lyric or the epic), It offers a large assortment of the subtle neutral sayings and words, that in any translation would play a role as a catalyst.
While working on the translation of children's poems, you are deprived of the right to resort to the liberties, as the rapid pace of poems hinder weighed down the text so unwieldy ballast.
In general, it would be very useful for our common cause, if foreign translators of poetry for children a chance to study the techniques and methods S.Ya.. Marshak in his translations: English folk songs (eg, "We lost kittens on the road gloves"), "The Ballad of the royal sandwich" And. Milna, "Camel hump", "If the cabin windows", "On the distant Amazon" P. Kipling - and a great many other masterpieces of foreign, created for the happiness of kids.

IV

Translation of "Crocodile" came once in the edition of Lippincott in New York. He translated his famous poet Miss Babette Deutsch (Deutsch). I'm sick to express its disapproval translation, because I know, that this translation is done from the heart. Babette Deutsch - author of a wide range, a large and diverse culture. Now I have it on the table book of critical essays, "Poetry of our time" («Poetry of our Time», 1963), where it is literary portraits of the most notable Anglo-American poets of the XX century. Interesting and exciting book. Recently the same author published the same place, in New York, "Anthology of Russian poetry" («The Anthology of Russian Verse»), which shows in her translations of Pushkin, and block, Mayakovsky, and Aliger, and Robert Rozhdestvensky, other. In this "Anthology" a lot to me unacceptable (eg, the systematic impoverishment of rhymes), but still this is a very respectable and diligent work.
"Crocodile" in her excellent translation published. beautiful cover, elegant font. Edition so fascinated me, that at first I naively gave him the appearance of. Even now I have kept silent about his shortcomings, if not in front of me stood a matter of principle: how to translate Russian poetry for children, written in today's dynamic style?

Chapter Nine
Transfers before and now

Each era is worthy of translation, she suffers or who admired.
Ivan Kashkin

I

"Lay" was translated into Russian and forty-four or forty-five times - and each time in a different way. In each of these forty-four or forty-five transfers reflected the personality and the translator with all of its individual qualities, and the era, when translation has been created, as each translator brought in his own version of exactly those elements, which formed the basis of the actual while aesthetics.
Every new translation, in this way, It was a new distortion of the original, due to the taste of a social stratum, which was addressed translator. То есть, in other words, each epoch gave the interpreters own recipe deviations from the original, and this recipe they are strictly adhered to, and their contemporaries precisely these deviations, and it seemed to the main transfer dignity.
lozhnoklassitsizma Epoch dictated poets such transfers "Yaroslavna's Lament":

I turtledove itself for the Danube fly,
Beaver in his sleeve Kayala dip,
And wipe the wounds on the body of Igor,
the pale, может быть, and cold with a move in .

It turns lush Alexandrian verse, clearly intended for recitation on the stage.
So we wrote poems "loud" tragedy Ozerov, Knyazhnin, Sumarokova. Yaroslavna became similar - as a sister - at Princess Osneldu, that the same verses recited in Sumarokovo tragedy "Horev":

I cry, that you serve powerless!
But trust me, trust, my prince, where I will not live,
I mercies I will never forget
And they remember you on my coffin will!

Romantic era demanded, the interpreter turned "Yaroslavna's Lament" in romance:

Not in a grove turtledove coos,
Abandoned his boyfriend.
Young princess grieves
About Prince Igor his.
ABOUT, where are you, where are you, my dear friend?
Where Yaroslavnin clear light?
Who will give me, sad, swift wings
And easily swallows flying?
Brother, I vsporhnu - and along the Danube
Arrow birds fly ...
Etc.

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