I said in the Caucasus biennial tanned toddler:
– ooh, how did you become Negro.
– Not, I gritenok, gritenok.
Tirelessly delving into the structure of any compound word, children often evoke in their speeches the distant past, when there was no such overhead seam particles and roots. from the word “leposti” and smelled the old days, when it called lepym Okay, harmonious, slim.
Recall: “Do us Lepo byashet, bratie” in “Lay”, as well as: “In some people in the house cleanliness, beauty” – in “songs” Nekrasov (1866).
Other old words I heard from the children many times, when he told them “must not”. they answered: “Not, lzya”. And it reminded lzya Derzhavina:
Lzya Do not call a rose?
lzya, lepy, tower, chayanno – these ancient words died fifty years ago, and child, without knowing it, resurrects them only because, that he did not know their indissoluble spike with a particle “not”, Set in an ancient tradition. He does not know any exceptions to the general rule, and if those exceptions relate to later periods, then, ignoring them, He thus returns according to their meaning forgotten. I remember the cry of a four-warrior:
– I am captivated Alyaksandr Hawrushka, and he fled!
captivity, that is captured.
It is an archaic word almost completely forgotten in our speech, and if we use it, most often in a figurative sense (“She captivated me the beauty”), and the child returned to him by his immediate value, oglagoliv noun “captivity”.
Same archaists inevitably turned baby, shouted to his brother while playing:
– I order you, – means, I am your steward!
In the old clerk was really the, who ordered, not the one, who obeyed the orders. Child – by analogy with the words “ukazçik”, “customer” – returned “prikazchiku” lost its leadership role.
HE AND SHE
Remarkable sensitivity of the child to the generic word endings. Here it is most often corrects our speech.
– What you creep, like a turtle? – I say three year old boy.
But he has already grasped in three years, that the masculine gender ought not to have a feminine ending “a”:
– I am not a turtle, I turtles.
Fonberg Vera wrote to me from Novorossiysk on the following conversation with his four-year son:
– Mama, ram – he?
– is he.
– sheep – she?
– She is.
– And why Dad – he? We ought to dads, instead of Dad.
Another such grammatical protest:
– Mama, on my finger scratching!
– no stockings, and a scratch.
– It's in Musi if, – scratch, boy and I! I'm scratching!
From a four-year Natasha Zhuhovetskoy I heard:
– wheat – Mama, and millet – her darling.
About the same classification generic endings, produced one preschooler, I am informed from Vologda:
– Tit – aunty, and uncle – tit.
– Woman – Mermaid. Man – RUSAL.
begin to play:
– I'm a lady, you, Tanya, servant, and Vova will be servants.
Later, to the age of seven, children begin to notice with surprise, that Russian grammar words of one and the same category there are masculine and feminine:
– moms! Moscow – she, and Penza – she. Rostov – he, Smolensk – it*.
* A.N.Gvozdev, The study of children's speech, M. 1961, pp. 330.
When Alena Polezhaeva father told her accusingly: “Lala – byaka”, it immediately from this feminine men formed:
– Dad – byak! Dad – byak! Dad – byak!
– Dad, you men! – Natasha says Malovitsky, because the end and she is due representation of women. This view is to some extent also characteristic of adult. No wonder the people say: “the boy”, “with grandfather”.
The three-year Vova plays corner:
– You poor hare… You drunks knocked…
Obviously, for his linguistic consciousness only a woman can be drunk.
On the previous pages we talked mainly about that curious structure, that young children give verbs and nouns. Adjectives are relatively rare in children's speech. But even a small number, which I managed to gather for a very long time, also clearly reflected the inherent instinct of language to children:
– chervyachi apple.
– Zhmutnye shoes.
– Vzbesitaya horse.
– Dochkastaya milf.
– Zooparchenny watchman.
– Tion and thunderstorms finger.
– Pugatelnye tales.
– Sverkastenky stone.
– Molokonnaya pan.
– What okoshny house!
– What sand pesuchy!
– All bed I Kroshkina.
– What are you giving me candy slepitye?
– doctor of teeth.
– We have electricity rotten.
– I Zhulnichnaya, still like a boy.
– Bryzguchaya water.
– Nasmarkanny scarf.
– bottle burst.
– You, Mama, I luchshevsehnaya!
– It rybizhirnaya spoon?
– I do not want this bag: it is all dyrkataya.
– This house is our high-Mail.
– Why lizard Lyudin fingers?
– Our radio is very oruchee.
– I'd rather go for a walk nepokushannaya.
– dog disappeared.
– Klevachev cock.
– Razdavitaya fly.
– armchair legs.
– Mahuchy tail.
(Somewhat differently in Chekhov: “insects collection”.)
Checkmark boasts four years:
– they say: put on stockings – I wear socks! They say put on your socks put on stockings. I do naoborotlivaya.
He heard, as some said bather on the beach:
– I'm just crazy. I bathe fourth time.
And he asked his mother about two hours later:
– Where it went, sumasoshlataya?
The four-year Maya:
– forest zabluditelny, odnoynelzyahoditelny.
Despite its quirkiness, Almost every one of these adjectives, invented a small child, in the spirit of Russian folk speech, and there would be nothing surprising, if in any Slavic language were the words, as “chervyachi apple” or “zabluditelny forest”.
CROSSING OF WORDS
Created from a child adjectives I especially had a word for soul “blystenkyy”:
– My cup such blistenkaya (shiny and neat right).
Blystenkyy – synthetic floor. It merged two different words, whose roots are in tune. This is the same I have recently heard: bronemetskaya machine.
Note by the way, What is the crossing of two different roots is observed not only in adjectives. for example:
– I floor (my floors).
– Where is your volosetka? (hairnet).
– I love bezumitelno kisanek! (plus insanely amazing).
This category applies to the word perevodinki – decals.
Recently I was informed about the small Jura, where adults persistently asked:
– Whose son are you?
At first, he answered every time:
– Mom and pope!
But then he got tired of it, and he created a short formula:
– Look, What zhukashechka creeps! (Beetle plus bukashechka).
– Let's do kuchelo of snow! (plus a bunch of stuffed).
trying peakless cap:
– Hat with moryakorem (plus anchor sailor).
Kira, twelve years old, shouted:
– Mama, give me, you are welcome, luksusu!
I do not understand, what she wants.
– Luksus – This onion and vinegar, – I explained Kirin mother. – Kira, when I was little, so quickly uttered “onions with vinegar”, what it does “luksus”. Word is left in our family forever.
Vladimir Glotser a child someone had called podhalizoy (podhalim plus podliza).
The three-year Tanja Dubinyuk:
– My dad is also a pidzhaket (plus jacket jacket).
And hybrid spider with cockroach:
– Mama, I'm afraid, semi Pauk!
Luksus, Mapin, pidzhaket, paukan, podhaliza, volosetka, bezumitelno, blystenkyy – like compound words are not only children. Ilya Repin in his book “far closer” I put it, eg, a newspaper scribbler, what they “shavkali of the gate”. It was a slip of the tongue. In fact, he wanted to write “tyavkali, as a mongrel”, – but the word “şavkali” so expressively, that to abandon it was a pity, and I, as editor of the book is sacred save it in text Repinsky.
When two similar words are wedged into one another so, that the result is a new, consisting of two approximately equal parts, This word is called a hybrid. An example of such a hybrid may serve as word dramediya (drama + comedy); word is invented by a friend of Charlie Chaplin, strove to characterize the distinctive kinospektakli, who created a brilliant actor.
“His comedies are on the brink of tragedy. For this a suitable name – dramediya”*.
* Charlie Chaplin, Jr., My father, Charlie Chaplin, “Foreign literature”, 1961, № 7, pp. 150.
In the same hybrid is another English word could, built of two words: adder – that is, the smoke, and Fogh – fog.
“Smog, – says Sergei Obraztsov, – impenetrable, red, poisoned by carbon cold steam”*.
* S.Obraztsov, About tom, I saw, I learned and understood during two trips to London, M. 1937, pp. 174-175.
Word of this came a long time: it is found in the British newspaper “Daily News” already in 1905 year. The famous English writer Lewisite Carroll, author “Alice in Wonderland”, I loved to write such compound words and called them “word-bags”*.
* “VJa”, 1961, № 4, pp. 141-142.
In its structure, the “adults” word-bags – dramediya, smog and shavkali – They do not differ from children volosetok, paukanov and luksusov.
TYPICAL “BUGS” CHILDREN
Among children pronouns differ special originality possessive:
– It chinaya mom? Higinio?
– It ktoytina hat?
– It ktoshina girl?
– aunt Nina, Volga kavonina?
Word “whose” It comes relatively late.
Pronouns demonstrative often chudyatsya children even there, where they are not. I, eg, in early childhood was sure, that the shelves – two words: this Zherkov.
And I say: “this Zherkov”, “under this Zherkov” etc.. Now I was convinced, that the same mistakes are made very many children, just heard the word “bookcase”.
Writer Yury Olesha told me, that a five-year, along with Igor Rossinsky “this Zherkov” He introduced a form “and zherka”. And another five-spoke: “and buretka” and “this buretka”.
The hardest thing small children are capricious irregular verbs:
– My dad fought.
– not fight – war.
– The lamp has zazhgita.
– Why do you say “zazhgita”? should speak: “zazhgina”!
– here you go, “zazhgina”! Zajgyona!
Sometimes this takes the form of a linguistic dispute monologue. Boy, sleeping in the same room with me,, quietly he said to himself, sure, I did not hear:
– we splyam?
– we splim?
– we splyum?
And did not reach the form: sleep.
Generally irregular verbs manage children well, if it is the correct verb, and with mathematical precision from one form produced by analogy all the other:
– Fish ozhivela.
– Grandma I turpentine Potro.
– You do not dadosh, I vzyamu.
– I'll ask ourselves, Wait.
– Draw me Watchdog.
– Spey me a song about the stupid little mouse.
– Kotya doll Kolotylo, Lala loud vizgala.
– When the children enter the room, Enjoy them with candy.
– You feel, as a warm eye to your ear prizhmalsya?
– Verka plyuvaetsya.
– Way doll to sleep.
– I once lyagnu, and dreaming.
curious, most indicatives forms are produced mechanically by imperative: lyagnu of Pressure at, zazhmila of zazhmi, Cons by rubbing, Bring on bring.
– Yurik me potselul.
A imperative as a straight line produced by an indefinite: Spey, Drawn, coiffured.
– I was looking for a gun. – she draetsya.
However, Children of inertia can be generated from any verbal form any verb form.
– Natasha, We go to the dining room.
– I do not want to go into the dining room.
And even more striking example: povelitelynoe tense verb, produced by an exclamation, not having no bearing to verbs:
– Oh my God! Oh my God! – terrified grandmother, seeing, both got dirty in the mud her four-year Volodya.
Volodya did not like her lamentations.
– You are welcome, not bozhemoykay! – he says angrily,.
S.Izumrudova told me such a wonderful conversation two four girls:
– And I'm your cock sprya-ta-yu (very lingeringly).
– I find.
– And you do not find.
– Well, then I started to cry and syadayu.
– You drink tea.
– Yes, I did not drink. I just pivnul modicum.
– The arrow on the clock once hodnula.
– is he, how bolnulo stomach!
– I'm just a little bit of the pie otkusnul.
– Let's go to the forest to err… What you want me to look after all?
Village girl told, that we are going into the woods; she asked:
This word is so fascinated me, what, admit, the first moment I even thought: to introduce it into our “adult” speech. We had long been lacking. pleased to say: “In a number of people you are going to the forest?”, when can be briefly and bluntly: “Vskolkerom?”
here the child (also quite independently) I went to the very origins of popular speech, For the people in the North there is an form “skolkero”, which is similar to the “five”, “six” It refers exclusively to animated objects *.
* El.Tager, winter Beach, M. 1957, pp. 46, “Skolkero [hornostaev] dodged”.
In general, for the child plastic even words, which form, for adult conviction, not be altered. Interesting form comparative degree, derived from these words, almost like, must not, star, morning, I never knew this form.
kindergarten teacher said, eg, one of the pets:
– Poor boy, he hardly goes!
– think! – said another jealously. – I, may be, go even edvee!
The girls were given the white lily:
Olya. Look, I as an asterisk!
Katya. And I have another star!
– Get up, it's morning already!
– I'll wait, when will utree.
– For it can not be taken, but because it is still impossible, Yes?
Thanks to the multiple effects and unified voice, that the child in the morning until the evening to hear from all the surrounding, in his mind he had the appropriate grammatical generalizations; without noticing it, he skillfully and subtly applies them to each given case.
Take, for example just given word “pivnul”. Sure, the child did not invent the word: well suffix, means instant, one-shot, Complete actions, prompted by an adult child, from which he, undoubtedly, I heard “sneezed”, “drank”, “swallowed”, “I turned”, “I looked” etc. And the same word “pivnul” It exists in our dialects. But baby it never heard, and the fact, he perfectly understood the complex expression of the suffix and so successfully applied his generalization to one of the words, which in normal “adult” speech this suffix is not characteristic, says the child's self-constructive work.
– I razvyaznulsya lace.
– Mom Spit raspletnulas!
Especially expressive sounds in children suffix well in those verbs, in which he is not allowed adults. It can be seen from this, eg, dialogue:
Kira. Mama, Lena hamming!
Lena. Not true!
Kira. And who is now krivnulsya?
Two to five
I said in the Caucasus biennial tanned toddler: