And note, how effective are these childish words. In most cases, they represent objects solely by their actions.
Stroganok – It `s that, than planed,
Kopatka – It `s that, than digging.
Kolotok – It `s that, than bash.
heat – It `s that, cling to what.
vertuty – It `s that, that turns.
Lizık – It `s that, that licks.
Mazelin – It `s that, than smear.
Kusarik – It `s that, that bite.
There is not a single word, which would not be associated with the movement, the dynamics of.
Throughout put forward in the first place an effective object function.
The three-year child confident, that almost every thing exists or that a well-defined action and this action is can not be understood.
The noun child feels the latent energy of the verb.
You just look closely, with what looks intently year-old baby in the car, motorcycles, trams, watching their continuous movement.
Almost all the security fixes, introduced a child in our “adult” speech, is precisely, that he puts in the first place dynamics.
AT “folk etymology” adults, this does not happen so often, because adults to notice words and other features. Russian peasants from the choir did Krylos (from the word “wing”), Hamilton turned in Chomutov, that is operated and nouns, but “folk etymology” Children almost always finds a subject title verb.
But, of course, and children sometimes happens nominate not a verb in the subject title, a noun or – rarely – adjective.
I am informed about the five-year Gavryusha, which botanists call tsvetanika (his father was the director of the botanical garden), and cheesecake – tvorushka (from the word “cottage cheese”); and I know Musya, who called naphthalene muftalinom, so I was sure, naphthalene that exists specifically for my mother's clutches.
However, such word-formations are not many. Most of the children's words, within the region “folk etymology”, associated with the verb forms.
So great attraction to children verb, they just do not have enough verbs, existing in “adults” language. We have to create your own.
Not, it seems, this noun, that the child would not be turned into a verb:
– Hours chasikayut.
– All tree obsvechkana! All tree obsvechkana!
Brother three years Nina plays the balalaika. Nina pained winces:
– What children, you are welcome!
The child creates these verbs dozens – much more, than we.
Pinch hand door itself, baby cries:
– The moon, I zadveril hand!
And let parents jarred it a bold verb production, child finds it perfectly normal.
– Otskorlupay my egg.
– Zamolotoch this stud.
– paper otknopkalas.
– I zaschёkala their candy!
– Hoo, how ladoshkayutsya!
– Ouch, I nettles nakrapivila!
– I namakaronilsya.
– I have nachaopilsya.
– We pochaypili coffee.
Sometimes even oglagolivaetsya adverb.
– Rasshirokaytes!.. Rasshirokaytes! – screamed its guests four-year girl, requiring, that they parted.
As a verb, even the word becomes “yet”:
– I shake on a swing, Only I did not lose my, and will all eschokat and eschokat *.
* Incidentally, I note, that the word “eschokat” its structure is consistent “adults” verb “encore”, Manufactured from Latin “bis” (to).
Verb can become even interjection hallo:
– Dad on the phone alokaet.
Sergei clung to her mother, She hugged him.
– all obmamilsya! – he praises.
This leads to the question of economy. Rather than shy away from bothersome flies, Arkady prefers otmuhivatsya:
– I sit and otmuhivayus. I sit and otmuhivayus.
There are no words, that the child would not have turned into verbs:
– Pokoynochitsya go with Dad and Mom.
Even the sleeve he becomes verbal form:
– Ouch, Mama, why did you make me like zamuftala?
in short, on each step is detected, that our children enough verbs. They need more, How can we give them, although we can give a lot of general, because our language is extremely rich in verbs, produced from nouns. From the word Gypsy Russian people have made a verb vytsyganit, from the word Kuzma – podkuzmit, from the word Egor – obegorit, words from hell – swear, ostochertet. And yet these verbs, descended from nouns:
petrify – from the word pole,
ape – the word monkey,
rob – from the word robber,
will land – the word earth,
prylunyatsya – from the word moon.
And from adjectives:
grow rich – from the word rich,
smarten oneself up – by words good.
giggle, crow, mew*.
* cf.. VV Vinogradov, Russian language (chapter “The system of verbal word-formation”), M.-L. 1947, pp. 433-437.
So here comes the baby in full accordance with the traditional rules of the native language. The most daring and bizarre growths of the child and in this case does not go beyond the national linguistic traditions.
Wonderful, that children's verbs such as otskorlupat, namakaronitsya created by the same scheme, for some of our great writers, word artists, We tried at one time to create new forms of verbs.
Derzhavin wrote verb ruchitsya (from the word “Creek”), Zhukovsky obezmyshit, Koltsov – Pilate, Garrot – obynostranitsya, omnogolyudet, oravnodushet, Goncharov – bayronstvovat, Shchedrin – dushedryanstvovat, umonelepstvovat.
Sometimes such neologisms created to express the irony, when the author himself aware of all the deliberate awkwardness penned words.
This is, eg, couplet, which is attributed to Pushkin:
I'm in love, I am fascinated,
in short, I ogoncharovan.
These are almost all new verbs, who introduced in his speech Dostoevsky: aphonia (from the name of Mount Athos), fonzonit (Fonzon by name), apelsinnichat, limonnichat, ambitsioznichat, beloruchnichat, podrobnichat etc.. All – except for two: dzhentlmennichat and efface.
Only these two and hold in our language. Most flashed and forgotten, as, eg, Herzen verb Magdalene.
– Magdalene young man.
(On behalf of the penitent Magdalene.)
These are the same in Chekhov: cockroaches, etiketnichat, peresobachitsya, intrigue, okoshkodohlitsya, razmokropogoditsya.
AT “memoirs” Coney:
“He was drunk – we feast day, Well he naprestolilsya”.
Feeling the language laws, four linguist says:
– hen otsyplyatilas!
All these words, impromptu, word-by-night, and who does not claim it, to infiltrate the language, enter into a common voice usage, become universally suitable. Created for the occasion, they are most often cultivated in home conversations, in private letters, in comic verse and died immediately after his birth.
There have been such periods in the history of the language, when this process is the formation of verbs (mainly on nouns) It seemed quiet for many years, but then suddenly I became extremely active and has gained a very wide scope. It happened, eg, at that time, when did Mayakovsky, generous input in his poetry the words, how obeznochit, millionth, whirlwind, sick, iyulit, mandaliniti, vyfrantit, vygrustit…
Of course, it was not his personal outrage: such literary innovations were a reflection of the, that was done in the home, because at that time it was full and speaking these words:
– Brother, I zakastryulilas!
– He podfamilil paper…
– Are not you ashamed meshochnichat!
– Zakomissarilsya young man!
No wonder shortly before Klebnikov operated such words, like Genghis Khan, Mozart, and Igor Northerner introduced in his poems such verbs, made from nouns, how osupruzhitsya, okaloshit, oproborit, ofrachitsya, onezdeshnitsya, nastrunitsya and so on., and so on., etc..
In tuxedo, in chic oproborennye,
The Princes living nastrunilis,
their faces oglupiv.
Readers willingly accepted if such verbal innovations, For these innovations were in the spirit of the age: in the household, conversation took place while the same process reinforced oglagolivaniya nouns. Then do you create a song:
She drank tea,
Then (about the middle of the 30s) this process is stalled, although now my friend heard on the train with their ears:
– conductor pylesosnichaet.
The child's speech is not a periodization. Each new generation of children will always create again and again a great many similar verbs, not noticing his linguistic innovation. oglagolivaniya nouns have activity decreases only to the extent that, they come out of the pre-school age. How closely abut verb forms created by them to those forms, which are created and people are, it is seen, eg, of word cannibalize. I first heard this word a half-century ago, – even earlier. Grove, her grandson Repin, He squeezed his kulachishko and said,:
– Come on, cannibalize my fingers!
In those days, this word did not exist in people, since cannibalization (in the current sense of the term) It has not yet become a historical fact. In order that the child can advance – so to speak, in advance – construct the very word, who twenty years later it was created masses, need to, that he was a master of the same methods for constructing words, which has developed over thousands of years people.
V. CONQUEST OF GRAMMAR
– Look, naluzhil like rain!
– Ouch, a bubble I vypuzyrila!
– Give me raspaketit packages.
– For you kočergu, pokochergay.
– The dog opened her mouth, and then zazinula.
– Brother, how obsnegilas Street!
– See, I well priudobilsya.
– Weather, I have not otsonilas.
– mom angry, but quickly fertilized.
– The entire bridge zaloshadilo.
– What are you so uglazilas?
These verbs I particularly admire consoles, masterfully giving each word is the expression of the shade, What gives them the people.
They are showing, how wonderful it feels the child for the purpose of these small, you, in, on, races, and so on. Uglazitsya, vypuzyrit, raspaketit, zadverit, natabachyt, pryudobytsya, obsnegitsya – here the child can never go wrong. He has two and a half years of great disposes of all prefixes.
When Yurik B. did not like, that his mother for dinner salted egg, he cried:
– Vыsoli back!
The other boy, long korpevshy over some paper products, suddenly he said, triumphantly:
– I worked, I worked, and vytrudil steamer!
Such examples are many:
– I can not rasponyat, what is depicted in this picture.
– I remember, I remember, and then otpomnil.
– Mama, otpachkay my hand!
– infection, and then reflected (recovered).
– Dad, already rasgaschivaetsya! – He shouted his father five year old daughter, when guests, came to his mother, gradually began to disperse.
Rasgaschivaetsya! One that bold, suddenly a created verb she found such brilliant flair language, what could be the envy of Gogol.
All of these consoles give the Russian language as the richest shades. Its wonderful expressiveness largely depends on them. a light, to smoke, smoke out, to smoke, fill with smoke, stoned, Prosecutor's, smoko – in this diversity lies a variety of meanings of prefixes.
And is not it amazing, that the child is already in the third year of his life completely possessed all this vast arsenal of attachments and great guessing the value of each of them. adult alien, Although he studied our language for many years, never reach such virtuosity in handling these particles words, which shows year-old child, unconsciously perceiving ancestral system of linguistic thought.
this virtuosity, as we have just seen, I found two-year Dzhanochka, when she said his immortal phrase about the doll:
– Here pritonula, and here vytonula!
In no way affects this more evident linguistic sensitivity and talent of the child, how it is, he realizes so early all the various functions, performed in the native language of each of these small and invisible particles.
Child found himself for the first time in the country. On the neighboring dachas and the right and left of the dog barking all night. He asks with surprise:
– What is there for cables carry a?
this cables carry (by analogy with the words roll, correspondence, hassle, pereplyas, chime) perfectly portrayed the phenomenon, noticed that the child: discontinuity and “mutuality” dog barking. to explain “perelay” foreigner, I would have had to resort to such a wordy descriptive speech: two dogs are barking (or more) on two opposite sides, and not just, and alternately – almost silent one, immediately taken to bark another: perelay.
That's how much it would take words, to express, that the child expressed a single word with a short prefix.
it, Kysya, not “correspondence”!
It is only just Correspondence *.
* “literary Heritage”, t. 65, M. 1958, pp. 129.
Lzya AND NOT
A curious feature of the children's consoles: they never fused with the root. The child pulls them from the roots and lighter and more, than adults. is he, eg, He speaks:
– At first I was afraid of the tram, and then OFF, OFF and used.
He has no doubt that, that if there “accustomed”, there must be “OFF”.
It is the same with particles of negation.
tell, eg, baby: “Brother, What are you ignorant!”, and he: “Not, daddy, Tower I, Tower I!” Or: “You're such a slut”, and he: “Okay, I ryaha!”
Ani Kokush grandmother told her with a bitter reproach:
– you klutz.
Anna, with tears:
– Not, dotёpa, dotёpa!
And Mitya exclamation Tolstoy before the zoo cage:
– The moon, any monkey uklyuzhie!*
* cf.. in Polezhaeva: “And uklyuzhistye bars” (A.I.Polezhaev, poems, M. 1933, pp. 323) and Igor Northerner: “You listen to me, my uklyuzhy…”
In adults, the denial is not often adheres to the roots. I first thought about it, when he heard the following conversation kids:
– Do not Cry, he accidentally hit.
– Not, chayanno, chayanno, I know, that chayanno!
There is a whole category of words, not exist in “adults” language without denying. This is, eg, word to expect. Without adherent to his denial of it in recent literature has not found. It has become the standard form: “unexpected”, but in the old days we kept reading:
“Expected soon come true…” (Shchedrin).
“Instead of waiting for the familiar plains…” (Turgenev).
Nekrasov 1870 I was introduced this word in a poem “Granddad”:
Long expected grandfather,
but in the first edition of the book, where this poem was again published, I found it necessary to change the entire row:
This mysterious grandfather *.
* N.A.Nekrasov, Full. SOBR. op. and letters, t. III, M. 1949, pp. 8 and 422.
Children would not approve of this amendment. for the word “expect” alive for them and now.
Twenty years ago, I overheard this dialogue:
– Leave me alone, L hate you.
– I love you too not very navizhu.
And the same thing happened to me recently to hear:
– Mama, I can not navidet foam *.
* Same is the unpublished diary F.Vigdorovoy: “Mama, You hate us, and I have, that you have navidela”. There is also a word “chayanno”.
in short, children and to know not willing to this indissoluble fusion prefixes and roots; and try to tell a three-year Yura, he says absurdity, He is passionate answer: “Not, leposti!”
In general, any “not” It hurts children:
– You are my darling!
– Not, Transparent!
Two to five