* These numbers, I borrow from the article A.P.Semenovoy “Psychological analysis of the understanding of allegory, metaphors and similes”. “Scientific notes of the Leningrad Herzen Pedagogical Institute”, t. 35, pp. 180.
III. “FOLK ETYMOLOGY”
Once I happened to overhear some wonderful children's utterances, where the method is clearly affected, with which the child unconsciously conceptualize our “adult” speech.
The three-year Moore ran up to me and said,:
– Mom asks mazelin!
– What mazelin?
It turned, that she was sent to bring the Vaseline. But vaseline dead word for it, and here on the way from room to room, she unwittingly revived and comprehend it, because that is the essence of Vaseline for her, that this ointment, which can smear.
Another child for the same reason described lipstick – lip Pomozov.
Equally successfully revived and comprehend the incomprehensible word my friend Cyril two and a half years. When he was sick, He repeated all the time:
– Put me on the head cold mokress!
He vaguely heard strange word “compress” and, thinking, it repeats its, does not wishing novatorstvovat, I created a new, it is appropriate to his understanding. He said to himself, as it were,: is a wet rag, why did not she mokress? After all, the baby does not know the Latin word “compress” (compression), from which the “compress”.
One four-year-girl, instead of words “thermometer” said the heat meter, the teplometr, unconsciously translating this word in the Russian language and at the same time retaining its former visibility.
another instead “the loop” said cling, It is in the firm belief, that repeats heard, rather than create something new. heat – it is much more expressive: then, than to cling to the hook.
The same understanding of incomprehensible words made the child, which I showed to run on the saucer mercury:
– Uncle Chukosha brought us vertuty!
everyone laughed, but someone told:
– What are you laughing? After spinning. Means, vertuty.
– Mama, I saw a car with the rising puzovom. (Magnificent interpretation of the words “body”.)
Busia (unknown to me age) aptly called the drill dentist bolmashinoy, and the curious, that the children of the orphanage, who had to visit the dentist, the drill was given the same nickname.
Here it is the same – invisible children – controversy with our expressionless (for children's understanding) in short, its commitment to the highest expressivity.
Characteristic in this respect a lovely word kusarik. So Lola called cracker, which do not dry their remarkable for a child, namely the, that it can bite. What he biscuit? is he – kusarik.
A four-year-Tanya Ivanova said:
– Take me, Mama, to vihraheru.
– By vihraheru?
The mother is not easily guessed, that vihraher – this barber, who cuts her curls.
In the case, Why celebrate in the language of such activities our barber, that most of them now is alien? Wigs went out of use in the XVIII century, and “makers of wigs” Now preserved mainly in theaters and clubs, the rest have turned into vihraherov, the purpose of which is, to cut us curls.
In most cases, only the children and to seek, as closely as possible to copy the older. But, We are trying to reproduce the entire accuracy of our “adult” speech, they correct it unconsciously, moreover, repeat, she is amazing virtuosity, with which, Variables in the hear the words of only one sound, they are forced to obey the word of logic, their sense of things.
– Mum heart ached, and she drank boleryanku.
in short, If the child quietly direct correspondence between an object and its function name, he corrects name, Stressing in this word that unique object function, which for the time being he could see. In this way, we see again and again, that the child's development of speech are themselves the unity of imitation and creativity.
As soon as the two-year Taraska learned word “hammer”, he makes it kolotok. I touched it alone “the letter '”, and as a result the whole word has come off from its former root and as if nothing had happened began to grow on the other. And what is for the child a hammer? Random combination of sounds.
The child unconsciously demands, that was the point in the sound, that the word was alive, tangible image; and if this is not, the child himself will give a strange word in the desired manner and meaning.
Fan him – vertilyator.
Web – paukina.
Spring – kruzhynka.
militiaman – ulitsioner.
Buravchik – dıryavçik.
Excavator – peskovator (because the rake sand).
Recipe – pritsept (because it clings to the pharmacy bottle).
Everywhere one and the same method of interpretation of the words heard by an inadvertent substitution of a minimum number of sounds. After hearing from two rhyme “Moydodıra”:
And now the same brush, brushes
crackled, as the ratchet…
My three year old daughter, I never heard the word “treshtotka”, I try to understand it using this transformation:
And now the same brush, brushes
crackled, as the three aunt.
More fun acted in a similar case, a four Natasha. She heard a song neighbor:
Even though you make a match, at least not make a match,
Still I love you…
and I sang her the next day his doll:
Though you with wool, though without wool,
Still I love you.
UNDERSTANDING SPEECH nonsense
It happens, that the pursuit of meaning leads the child to utter nonsense. Hearing, eg, song, which began with the words:
King trembling creations,
child reproduced it so:
King, trembling with jam.
Wild this phrase was much more meaningful for the child, than, he heard from adults.
In a Persian fairy tale princess says groom:
– Lord of my soul.
I heard this story a three-year-il and told the exclamation of the princess in their own way:
– Plasticine my soul.
Mother combs four-Luda and accidentally pulls her hair comb. Luda whimpers, to cry. Mother says to comfort:
– terpene, Kazakh, chieftain will!
Luda evening playing with doll, combs and repeats its:
– terpene, goat, and the mother will!
The same desire for meaning, According to the obvious and things affected in that magnificent nonsense, which was created recently a four-Muscovite.
After hearing from the adult poetry:
jumper disaster, you lord
From the battle passed, bolt upright,
But the evil bullet Ossetian
You caught up in the dark…
he just memorized them by heart, the latter couplet was it decorated so:
But the evil fish sturgeon
You caught up in the dark.
And here again, this is nonsense for it is much more full of meaning, than it is quite meaningful combination of words, which was given to him by adults.
The four-year checkmark, heard the famous song “Favorite city in the blue haze melts”, reproduced these words in such a way: “favorite city, blue smoke China”.
And Don Quixote called “slim Cat”.
When my older sister memorized Pushkin's poem aloud:
As it is now sbiraetsya prophetic Oleg,
I, a five-year boy, I understand this line in its own way:
As it is now gathering its things Oleg.
Batiushkov there is a line:
forests, rustle waves, Rhone!
Renowned linguist D.N.Ushakov spoke at a lecture to students, that as a child, this was perceived them as a string:
forests, forests, Myron wave!*
* D.N.Ushakov, A brief introduction to the science of language, M. 1925, pp. 41-42.
Whatever I was wrong baby in the interpretation of certain words and concepts, it can not discredit the appropriate method, by which he comes to the final understanding of our speech.
Exactly the same verbal creativity can be seen in people's speech.
In linguistics, a false understanding of the words is called “People (or polunarodnoy) etymology”.
Nikolaev soldiers adapted to his understanding of the foreign word “goshpital”, giving it a snide nickname “voshpital” (ie nursery lice).
A popular name patch – klastır, boulevard – gulvar. Clinic popularly often called poluklinikoy, Unlike clinic, ie hospitals.
The German word Profoss (was the name used to be a military police minister, Acting warden and executioner) It changed in the vernacular in the scoundrel *.
* VV Vinogradov, Essays on the History of Russian literary language XVII-XIX centuries., M. 1938, pp. 52.
– How not to understand! the bear
Many of them reeling
Scoundrels and now.
Those ancient Egyptian sphinxes, that are on the Neva in Leningrad before the Academy of Arts, It was called colloquially sfinkami (that is simply pigs), as noted in one of his early poems Nekrasov:
I walked past the sfinok *.
* N.A.Nekrasov, Full. SOBR. op. and letters, t. I, M. 1948, pp. 365.
And in one of Dahl's stories:
“…on the waterfront, where two pigs are huge”*.
* VIDal, story. stories. Sketches. Fairy tales, M.-L. 1961, pp. 56 and 448.
The townsfolk to this folk art has always treated condescendingly, lightly.
AT “bad joke” Dostoevsky two officials have expressed this neglect so:
“- The Russian people, with, more nonsense, changes sometimes letters, sometimes with and pronounces its own way, with. for example, speak invalid, and would have to say, with a disabled.
– well yes… invalid, heh heh!”
But, of course, does that every living and healthy people. Russian people, master your language, will not tolerate, to the language sounded lifeless words, the root of which he can not understand and feel. He needs, so that the sound was a sense. Every word he subjugates its own logic, moreover, seeking to understanding speech, he thereby Russified his.
Great connoisseur and lover of folk etymology was, as known, Leskov. His characters now and then spoke: klevoton (feuilleton), tinyscope (microscope), dolbica (table) multiplication, etc.. Barometer turned in their buremotr, dishabille – in bezbele. The French word “morality” they are derived from the Russian word “puddle”:
“- Maral allowed on girl, – mess her good name”.
Compare Ostrovsky in “late love”: “Contact with a woman, as I understand it, morality”. And Gleb Uspensky in “box”: “From him we are marals”.
In a Kuprin “fight” French surname Duvernoy soldiers turned into a Russian leg-tighten. known, that a foreigner Kos van Dalen made in Russia Kozodavlevym.
AT “War and Peace” Cossacks have altered the name of the young Frenchman Vincent in Spring, and the men and soldiers – hover. Both alterations is a reminder of spring converge with the idea of youth:
– Hey, hovering! hovering! Spring!
So does a child, turning the fan vertilyator, blade in kopatku and hammer in kolotok.
By minimal change in the sound of speech of unknown structure child, imperceptibly, conceptualize it, and in this new version of the most essential nominated (from the point of view of a child) quality of the object, that the data word is designated.
So, Adik Pavlov called Seraphim Mihajlovnu Saccharin M., and the little-il, podmetiv, that cufflinks are the exclusive affiliation of Pope, I rename them paponki:
– Daddy, Show yours paponki!
saliva, eg, children turns into plyunku:
– Because we do not slyuem, and spit.
Language they call lizyk, and I have reported Nina Gulyayeva, which has reached the age of seven, but still could not come to terms with our adult “distortion” form lizyk:
– How so! Lick – and suddenly lizyk, and the language!
In Ukrainian language at the oxen and cows and is called Liesen.
Child and can not imagine, that adults have created a word, the sound which has no characteristic features indicated by this word object. Topol has to stomp, eagle – scream, and the rainbow – please:
– Why is this – rainbow? Because she is happy, Yes?
Still, As I know, these linguistic processes were sighted only in adults. But here, turns out, and in the speech of children, they do not occupy the last place, for there is no significant difference between vertilyatorom and tinyscope, between vertuty and sfinkoy.
Two to five