Two to five

Umanyau, Uman!
Endepdine, beteton.
Endendine, beteton!
Gorbonove rarity!
Gorbonove rarity!*
* I quote from the book E.Yu.Shabad “Children living word”. From the works of the first experimental station of the People's Commissariat, M. 1924, pp. 69.
A lot of children's abstruse poems I wrote at the time for the poet Velimir Khlebnikov.
About gravity young children to sound arabesques, have purely ornamental character, I first learned of Pushkin's biography. His friend had a brother Delvig, seven-year Vanya, Delvig which called for some reason, romantic. hearing, Vanya is already writing poetry, Pushkin wanted to meet him, and the little poet, not embarrassed, clearly said, putting both hands in the hands of Pushkin:
in India, in India, India!
in India, in India, India!
Alexander Sergeevich, patting the poet's head, I kissed him and said,:
– He's just a romantic…*
* A.P.Kern, Memories, L. 1929, pp. 288.
Often, that the poems composed by the child initially performed very clear sense, but then under the influence of games this meaning gradually disappears and poetry unbeknownst to the author glosses are abstruse.
Once in the country under my window there was a strange boy, who cried out in ecstasy, showing me a reed:
Eka peak uncle gave!
Eka peak uncle gave!
to, obviously, his enthusiasm went far beyond human words, because a few minutes later the same song it sounded differently:
Эkikiki to Didi!
Эkikiki to Didi!
From “Eka peaks” It was “ekikiki”, of “uncle gave” – “didi not”.
The case is extremely expressive, but, Unfortunately, while, when I hear this song led, I misunderstood the transformation, which he subjected her to a singing child. I imagined, if the child “He released the song on the meaning, both from the excess load”. That's what I wrote in my book, and only later observations have convinced me, that children never deliberate desire to nonsense. As we have seen, children, opposite, strive in whatever was to understand every word heard, transforming “excavator” at “peskovator” and “vaseline” at “mazelin”. In this case, the child released the song is not the meaning, and from the embarrassing sounds. Spell “Cynics” simply because it is easier, All three consonants are completely identical. In fact, so are the vowels, for, if phonetically to write the word, succeed, of course, “ikikiki”, wherein the same consonants alternate with the same vowel. The whole point here is lightweight phonetics. characteristically, as in the second embodiment, the rhythm of the verse remained the same.
But, of course, You can not conceal the fact, that children in certain moments amuse themselves “sweet sounds” and revel in poems, like music, even without delving into their meaning.
It happens nearly every child, as evidenced by all the blogs of mothers and fathers, Where, as we have just seen, recorded all sorts “Baxter-karamundı” and “valchi-nebalchi”, an abundance of soluble pre-preschool age children.
This tendency of small children to revel sonorous harmonies are consistent with many children's songs in Russian, Serbian, Czech, Georgian, Swedish, Finnish, English folklore.
In order not to clutter the book dozens of multilingual quotes, I confine myself to English folklore, which are prevalent, eg, these verses, extremely popular among children:
ःऎtum, peelum, penny, pie,
Pop a lorie, Jye jinkie!
Khitem, pitem, a penny, pie,
Pop e lory, dshinki jai!
She, meena, mine, you,
Low, lena, lina, the!
Ine, mine, maine, us,
Besse, line, Laine, L o!
The painstaking research of the English scientist Henry Betta I read about the historical origin of these abstruse poetry.
It turns out, that once they were far from abstruse. They were filled with the very clear meaning in the language of the ancient Celts, who owned Britain long before Caesar *. But the Celts disappeared, their language is forgotten. Now these verses do not mean anything. British children they way its rhythm, his musical sound, Just as for the Russian children from one generation to retain their songs appeal to such introductions:
* Nursery Rhymes and Tales, their Origin and History by Henry Bett. Henry Bette, Nursery rhymes and fairy tales. Their origin and history, 1924, pp. 58.
Shadow, shadow, poteten…
Postryhuly, pomyhuly…
Kolya, please, Selenga…
pens, erya, dry, ryuha…
Tsyken, vyken…
and so on. d.
And now let the linguists try to find out, what it meant in the old pens, erya; we know, that Russian children for nearly five hundred years, it does not mean nothing at all and that it is in this sense oblivion (if only there was this sense!) It is the age-old appeal of these verses for each new generation of children.
The extent to which the rhythm and rhyme are important for many children, What is the meaning of verses, I was convinced, watching his four-year daughter on the hot sands of Sestroretsk. She was playing actively for itself some kind of endless tale of the hare. She was zaychiha, and it had ten leverets. The game is so captured her, that soon she spoke in verse. I'm not really listening to these verses, but suddenly I was struck by the words:
Bunny ran briskly,
And behind it runs Magazine.
– Magazine? – I asked. – Why is the magazine?
She was taken by surprise, blushed, but a minute later was found:
– do not you understand? Magazine – is a bunny… He read magazines, magazines, magazines, Here he was called Magazine.
Thus was invented – backdating – logical motivation for apparently senseless rhymes, which had no beginning no relation to the story. To the child, this motivation was not needed, it is perfectly do without it. When he had to think about, to find it for adults who do not understand, he lost the rhythm of the game, and appetite for versification.
Repeating his improvised verse, Children can distort the word, but under no circumstances violate Tunes, that for them there is a fundamental principle of the verse. When the boy screamed at the table:
give, give, let me
Ka-artofelno puree!
it reached irreproachable rate determined by the word executions “potatoes”: It doubled its first sound and completely destroyed last.
With equal determination distorted the words of the song three years of Anya – Agreement in the same rhythm polnovlastnomu. Anya's mother lying in bed and breast-feeding a newborn, I had just brought home from the hospital. Anya jumped around their new brother and shouted in raptures:
Mom with boy lies
And breast feeds him!
Mom with boy lies
And breast feeds him!
“bosom” and “feeds” – the rhythm of the victim. An hour later, the girl herself explained her father:
– It would be necessary “breast”… but “heap” – to make it foldable.
saucily, without further reflection, small children break any verbal form, if only to ensure the victory of his favorite rhythm (and sometimes even a rhyme).
Natochka Vernander, two and a half years, I cried once these verses:
Floating duck with goose
On razdutыh parusёm.
Said this couplet, she immediately noticed, that it violated some important rules, and began to explain, like Ana:
– “sail” – it is to be beautiful.
The three-year Lena paint pictures and repeated rhythmically:
red house
red house
Two children were sent to the dacha neighbors for newspapers. The girl returned with an armful “news”, and the boy ran into the room empty-handed, victoriously Critchley:
And I-ak voloka.
I'm halopyyu gallop!
And I-ak voloka.
I'm halopyyu gallop!
Word “gallop” he knew very well. But for the sake of meter, he unwittingly created to run the word gallop, so that he turned out absolutely correct ferrets. So great guys purely muscular sensation verse. by movement – to the sound, the sound – by the way, – that is the true path “ekikik”.
The same desire for rhythm is due to truncation, who underwent the word cat in the children's poems, facing six years of the poet to the dog:
Dzhoyka, Dzhoyka, you baby,
You chase kosh and mouse.
“bosom”, “gallop”, “ka-artofelno”, “basket”, “feeds” – Children willingly subjected to such deformation of any word, violates the rhythm.
Dad goes on a business trip.
Four-Lenya surprised:
– So we pope commander?!
And boy instantly invented couplet:
And my dad commander,
In komandirku drove off.
Mother corrects him:
– Not komandyrku, a business trip.
He tries to introduce her song is a long word, but it destroys it, and because a minute later, he again sings: “in komandirku”. So great is his sense of rhythm, what, Like any child singing, he prefers to distort the shape of the words, just to keep the integrity of the rhythm (reported his mother A.S.Mazaevoy).
What is the rhythm of all these children's Impromptus, caused by the dancing and jumping?
No matter how much I've heard similar verses, all the same rhythm: trochee.
Why is it so, I do not know.
May be, because, that children all over the world are jumping and dancing trochee; may be, because, that still breast, dumb babies all mothers are told that rhythm, when rock and throw them, when in front of them clap their hands, and even when they lull (because “bayuşkï enrichment and enrichment” there ferrets), – but, howbeit, it is almost the only joyful rhythm of nursery rhymes. Trochee, that sometimes is associated with anapaest.
Best children's folk songs (the same warehouse of dance) They have a huge majority of the same single rate.
Take the most typical songs of the, are assembled in Moscow Shane, Tula and Ryazan villages, and compare them with the English Nursery Rhymes. Throughout the first place will make the same ferrets:
Tyushki, tyushki, tyushki!
Up pichuzhki…
Ai dudu, dudu, dudu!
Raven sitting on the oak…
Three-ta-ta, Three-ta-ta!
Left cat for cat…
Don, Don, Don!
Cat's house on fire…
A drawing, the drawing,, the drawing,!
I peas milkweed…
A container, container, container!
Buy Lida amber…
awnings, Brent! Sam hawk
He moved through the field…
Cuba, Cuba, Kubák,
Tama deep pit…*
Khitem, pitem, a penny, pie,
Pop e lory, Jinky jai!
Ine, mine, maine, us,
Besse, line, Laine, L o!
* Russian folk songs, collected P.V.Sheynom, M. 1870, pp. 9, 14, 17, 40, 58 etc.
All these various passages favorite nursery rhymes, created in different times in different parts of Europe, seem to merge into one poem before they are similar to each other, uniform and arrangement of words, and rhythm.
I purposely chose these ones, heightened emotionality which is not in doubt, since the effect in the line structure: each poem begins some gibberish zapevkoy, having character interjection, shouted several times: awnings-Bains, Don-don-don, ah dudu-dudu-dudu, a drawing and drawing and drawing and t.p. These interjections most clearly expressed the essence of dance folk poetry for children. Tut tramp of feet, here vskidyvaniem hands, then drunkenness sounds – truly children of the world – one big sect jumpers.
No wonder so furiously screaming crowd of children, jumping around a large table:
Calico gallop!
Skips the whole of Europe.
Calico gallop!
Skips the whole of Europe.
This is the same “canter”, which in any healthy child so often realized in verse:
And I-ak voloka,
I'm halopyyu gallop!
About it “galope” one mother (Inna Klevenskaya) He informed me of an episode of the town of Kalinin:
“My son Paul ran to me with shining eyes, holding a plant colza, and shouted in delight:
– Mama, this grass – arbikoy?
Then – he is ahead, and the children behind him – rushed to gallop around the room, chanting wildly, but inspired:
This grass – arbikoy!
This grass – arbikoy…”
This reveals with special clarity the social character “ekikik”. they clingy. they are contagious. It should be one of the children to shout any rhythmic combination of sounds, these sounds are instantly picked up by all the other children, and, thus, private work of the poet, the child becomes a choral, collective.
In the letter very clearly marked all stages of the socialization of poetry.
At first – lonely boy delight, who found an unknown weed, to which he gave such an unusual name: arbikoy.
Then – his agitated rhythmic cry, in which he did not notice the verse:
– Mama, this grass – arbikoy?
Then the perception of the collective cry of children, that sensitively catch poetic sound here, I feel this cry like ferrets and begin to use it for its mass of ecstatic dancing, engaging in it and poet.
Such collective creativity of children I happened to watch more than once. I have often witnessed, a group of children, I heard some random passage of prose, immediately turn this prose into verse. I remember, cottage in Kuokkala driving past our garden-unknown Finn and greengrocer, to no turning, said:
– The rain is over, road sukkah! – This laconic phrase expressing his joy over the fact, what, despite yesterday's downpour, road remained dry.
Children immediately caught in this mysterious phrase your favorite ferrets and, when Finn scare them disappeared behind the bend in the road, spun, fakir, shouting:
The rain is over, road sukkah!
The rain is over, road sukkah!
So random prose, not quite understand the phrase became contagious and sonorous verse, organizes collective nursery dance.
Once the spring in the village a few children were sitting on the fence poles, and one of them ran, beetles caught during fishing cried: “beetle, beetle, below, – I can not see you!..” He turned unintentional verse. And they broke down right off, We started jumping, run for beetles and shout:
beetle, beetle, below,
I can not see you!
beetle, beetle, below,
I can not see you!
Since this was repeated daily, while there were bugs.
The poems of this kind, as we have seen, are necessarily brief and never go beyond the couplet, as during dancing young children need monotonous sounds, which can be repeated infinitely many times.
Another thing, when nursery rhymes are not dancing, and some rhythmic work, is composed of a variety of movements. These verses inspired work are much longer, and the rhythm of their more complex.
Many years ago, to my delight, I managed to peep, as the five-year children and other, a little older, themselves have laid down an amazing working song, which perfectly of rhythmic their labor processes.
It happened like this.
I have lived in the country in Finland, in the village, which is now called “Repino”, and I went to the waters with a whole team of children “Penates” Ilya Repin, in whose garden was well Abyssinian. Bucket we had little, I put it on a long stick, and children were carrying it along with me, proud of, that help adult work.
The road was a difficult: bucket engages the stumps and roots. Particularly hampered two stump, sticking in the middle of the road, and every time, when we approached them, I tried to persuade the children to be careful: not to spill the water. After every sixteen steps we stopped and rested for two minutes. And on the third day of our collaboration, when there has been a rhythm, children, walking with a bucket, They began to shout these verses:
two stump,
two roots
At the fence,
In pletnya,
That was not broken,
That was not shed,
When they cry blyams, As if on cue, We stopped and quietly lowered the bucket to the ground. Then he took up a stick and shouted again the same verses, Stepping to the beat of their cries. Wonderful, that the verses were just such a length, to fill him all the way between two stops: they lacked exactly sixteen steps.
However, not only for its length difference between these verses from the impromptu dance tune, about which we are talking: the very style of the other. They contain no ecstasy dancing – this gallant, but earnest song workers, exert, possible to carry out its work more thoroughly. true, here the same ferrets, but in this chorea not jumping and bouncing, and measuring, somewhat hindered, Although brisk pace. Here every word meaningful, because by their very labor situation.
This did not prevent the younger generation of children next summer to take advantage of our song for the usual unrestrained dancing. They circled on the sea shore and shouted:
two stump, two roots,
Views on me,
And blyams cry fell on the sand like a wounded.
In the eyes of children poems to the extent inseparable from the dance, that children tend to measure “plyasovitostyu” Even fairy tales.
Aunt Zosia said Marinka about my “Barmalea”:
– Why, I do not understand, We need these empty books!
– Brother, aunt, – retorted Marinka, – it all can dance!
Among the collective poetry are also those, who recently received the name: “draznilki”.
In the old days, these verses are usually jump out at the crowd of excited children, the pursuing of a hated person – chromium, madman, humpback, redheaded.
In this case, children are not just fleeing the enemy, and jumped and danced, like wild, which again affected the rhythm of poetry.
Used to, this savage dance happening on the ground – when, eg, two groups of children were standing opposite one another, as the two armies, ready for battle, and exchanged rhymed insults, that every moment could jump into the fray.
I heard a lot of these children's teasing, and it seems to me, that their most characteristic feature – variations in the sound of the first word, in repetitions, testifying excited, which were pronounced them.
These are the folk teasers:
ate bear…
Roma, mıgan
cat jerked…
Kolya, please Selenga
I ate a cow and a bull.
This sound inertia – sure sign, teasers that belong to the same emotional poetry, how they, which it is mentioned above.
Most teasing prevails again ferrets. Some of them give the impression iambs, but do not forget, that they have the first syllable while casting is drawn: “Baie-эsshtannыy cancer”, “E-egorka oblique”, which is what makes these lines Horites.
Teasers been directed not only against the people, but also against animals, hatred to which children are sometimes incited a.
Living in a village near Luga, I have seen, as the neighborhood kids, daily passing by the mill, chorus accused lived there for turkey, that he allegedly stole a pig, and in their reproaches reached fury, with each new cry incensed more:
Indya, indya, Red nose,
porosenochka claimed,
Indyu caught in,
Red snot torn.
these verses, hardly composed by children themselves, They were full of ferocious, though causeless hatred, that rang every cry.
Fair to say, that in two months, autumn, I met the same children, when they sent a solemn procession to the mill, carrying on round tablets, that distance seemed like large trays, colorful and bright piles of berries, mushrooms and flowers.
– Where are you going?

– For turkey. He birthday today.
They went to congratulate the name day of turkey and carried him rich gifts, completely forgetting about the hatred, that all summer fueled a her song.
Teasers often impromptu. The three-year Anja, hearing, both boast some lady, that her mother is from the nobility, immediately added to rhyme:
– But the father of the Apes.

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  1. Darina

    I liked the production