Two to five

given a picture, where instead of Humpty Dumpty (that is eggs) an ordinary boy sits on the fence and holds a nest in his hands!
To that changeling, which says, that on a hot July day the kids skated, attached drawing, depicting winter: children in fur coats ride on ice on a frosty winter day.
To a titanic song about, what would happen, if all the seas merged into one sea, and all the axes would become one ax, leaf drawing is given in the same book, where two curly haired girls splash coyly by the sugary sweet sea *.
* Mother Goose’s Nursery Rhymes. London and New York. (Ernest Lister, E.P.Dutton and C°.)
Today's English man is ashamed, that he received such wonderful songs from his fathers: he takes all measures, to spoil them. And he succeeds.
Our inhabitants are currently waging the same shameful struggle with the highest examples of children's folk literature. But this is for them – I know – I manage to.
We have folklore for children, as to everything, what is the genius of the people, treat with reverence and respect. If some compiler of children's folkloristic collections dared to distort their text with gag, it would be considered sacrilege. All kinds of nursery rhymes, riddles, draznilki, rhymes, “cradle songs” from infancy they surround Soviet children, since the oral tradition is supported in the children's environment by printed collections of these masterpieces of folk art, published from year to year by Detgiz, and regional publishing houses. I'm not talking about fairy tales, created by all the peoples of our country, – and above all about Russian folk tales. They are printed in such (growing annually!) quantities, that without them it is impossible to imagine a single kindergarten, no truly cultured family, where are the children.
All this, of course, excellent. Here is a great victory of progressive pedagogical thought over leftist pedologists, who with stupid zeal expelled our wise and poetic folklore from the system of raising Soviet children.
Great victory – but, Unfortunately, not complete. As if the winners don't finally believe, that they are winners. They are clearly shy in the conquered area., act with caution, apprehensively. Seem to be, that they themselves are afraid, as if magic tales or upside-down poems did not damage that materialistic outlook on the world, to which the entire education system in our country should ultimately lead the growing citizens. They seem to be not quite convinced yet., what exactly with the help of fantastic tales, with the help of extravagances and shape-shifters of all kinds, children are affirmed in a realistic attitude to reality.
The mental shyness of these people is manifested in the fact, eg, that they are the whole mass of folklore (and non-folklore) unbelievable poetry, upside-down poems were included in the category of entertainment.
So they write: merry, funny rhymes.
And speak condescendingly: “well, it is not a sin for children to laugh, we honor them, so be it, for the sake of laughter, any of these funny nonsense”.
Meanwhile, it is high time to move these “nonsense” in the category of pedagogically valuable cognitive works of poetry, contributing to the consolidation in children's minds of the correct understanding of reality.
tell, what a paradox, counterintuitive. But can any scientific truths be identified with those illusory appearances, which are suggested to us by the so-called life experience.
“It seems paradoxical, – writes Marx about one of the laws of economic life discovered by him, – and contrary to everyday experience. But paradoxically even then, that the earth moves around the sun and that water is composed of two flammable gases. Scientific truths are always paradoxical, judging from everyday experience, which captures only the deceptive appearance of things”*.
* Marx and Engels, compositions, t. 10, pp. 131.
The same paradox, undoubtedly, will seem to the so-called common sense my old guess that, that countless works of folk and book poetry, in which the facts of reality are deliberately distorted according to a certain system, serve the great tasks of realistic parenting.
Of course, reading to shape-shifting children, extravagances and fairy tales is just one of the ways to achieve these tasks; it cannot be isolated from many others, but you need to use it confidently, energetically and boldly, remember, what's not fun for kids here, or, rather, not only fun, but also the most useful mental work.
I have touched on a small corner of this huge issue: what should be books for children? – and we saw, what common opinions, in this regard, not only wrong, but also extremely dangerous. Meanwhile, we still do not have scientifically based criticism of children's books.. Who is in our newspapers, journals and even in special dissertations most often writes, eg, about poetry for children?
– or those, who don't understand poetry,
– or those, who don't understand children,
– or those, who don't understand any poetry, no children.
Needless to say, what, as soon as I wrote this chapter, I began to look with particular interest in the foreign press for any articles or books, where an interesting topic would be at least partially touched upon, which is interpreted here.
Best of all, what was found by me, – a new book by two English scientists, Ion and Peter Opie (Opie), published at Oxford in 1959 (and again in 1960) year. The book is called “Folklore and language of schoolchildren” – monumental book, a whole encyclopedia of children's counting rhymes, riddles, teasing, difficulty, примет, among today's English children. Upside-down poems take pride of place in this book.
Reading them, involuntarily surprised: how much they look like our Russian upside-down poems!
The same blind men appear in them, who, as if nothing had happened, came to look at some sight; the same dumb, shouting to someone “Hurrah”. There is also a deep basement, where to go down, to look out the attic window. There is also a bag, filled to the brim with cheeses and yet empty. There are also wildflowers, who sing and tweet. There is also midnight on a clear day.
Some of these “nonsense” exist, at least, half a thousand years, others are recent: they are about cars, buses, telephones, movie, but the principle of their construction is always the same, and they are all of the same type, as any of our Russian shape-shifters:
lo and behold – from under the dog
The gate is barking.
AND, of course, when i read this book, I was eager to know, how do the venerable authors explain the centuries-old craving for English, Russians, Czech, Serbian, French, German children to this word game of shape-shifting. Unfortunately, for some reason they see in the rollovers “the true nature of English wit” (“of native English wit”), for, as they say, “quite naturally, what in the country, who nurtured Edward Lear and Lewis Carroll and who sees them as national heroes, no child can not keep in his memory some stock of poetic absurdities”*.
* The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren, by Iona and Peter Opie. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1960.
Nobody disputes: Lewis Carroll and Edward Lear – true geniuses of British humor, but the syllogism of the Oxford scholars would be correct only then, if in everyday life children of other countries did not exist the same upside-down verses. Even from the present chapter of my book, readers can easily see, that the Russian people, with its own humor, not at all like english, created for his children exactly the same upside-down poems, how they, what did the british people create. So both Carroll and Lear have nothing to do with it.. And the generally recognized humor of the British has nothing to do with this genre of poetry..
It was easy for Oxford scholars to be convinced of their delusion just because, what, exploring english folklore, in this case they chose to ignore other folklore.
Not, that is why the upside-down verses are wonderful, what, regardless of any qualities of a particular people, children of all countries at a certain stage of their spiritual growth equally enjoy them, – and not only borrow them from book and folklore sources, but they themselves compose them in a myriad, – like Zhenya Gvozdev, Kole Shilova, Mura Chukovskaya, Seryozha Fisulati and other Soviet citizens “two to five”, which I quote in this chapter.
In this worldwide gravitation of children of a certain age to “beautiful nonsense” – one of the most striking examples of that auto-pedagogy, autodidactics, with the help of which young children themselves – regardless of their belonging to one or another nation – form their realistic comprehension of the external world.
English scientists will easily be convinced of this., if, in parallel with English folklore, shape-shifters are examined, rhymes, nursery rhymes of others, including Russians – children.
I hope, what will it happen, for in his other works, especially in “Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Folk Rhymes” they discovered great knowledge in the field of Slavic oral creativity *.
* The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes edited by Iona and Peter Opie, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1958, pp. 227, 263.
Chapter Five
I. Attraction to rhyme
Among the many methods, with the help of which the child learns the national speech, semantic systematization of words is not the last place.
At the suggestion of the child, many words live in pairs; each of these words has a double, most often its antithesis. Learning one word, children already in the third year of life begin to look for something, which is related to it by contrast. Wherein, of course, such errors are possible:
– It was damp yesterday.
– Is it boiled today?
– This water is standing.
– And where is the lying?
– it – armpits, where are the pods?
In such cases, children grab onto the wrong antithesis., what they needed, but in itself the classification of words by contrast is extremely fruitful for a more complete mastery of speech.
Such verbal pairs, as far as i could see, are for the child not only doubles in meaning, but in most cases – by sound.
The four-year-old daughter of the housekeeper Pasha, when she had to talk about yolk and white, uttered either yolk and squirrel, either protein and yolk.
She had lumpy and sandy sugar.
And if I started to tell her a fairy tale with a sad ending, she warned me:
– Tell the beginning, but don't finish.
Word “end” turned into her “finished”, to rhyme with a word “begining”. Obviously, in her view of the concept, parallel in meaning, should be parallel and sound.
Every time, giving me letters, brought to the kitchen by the postman, she said:
– Two postcards, and one flap.
– Three postcards, not a single flap.
There is nothing deliberate about all these rhymes. They just make it easier for a child to speak.: “start and end” it's easier for him to say, than “beginning and the end”; “spoons and knives” – much easier, than “spoons and knives”.
– You are deaf, and I'm hearing.
– It's harder, and this is easier.
– What a depth in the sky, and the trees are tall.
– Vobla – it's such a fish?
– What did you bring me – toy or kitchen? – asked a sick four year old girl, when mother came to her hospital with gifts.
– You will be a buyer, and I'm a seller.
– Not a seller, and the seller.
– Oh well: I will be a seller, and you are a buyer.
Helen Lozovskaya, playing ball with mother, suggested:
– You throw from a height, and I'm from the bottom.
Woman, which washed her hair and erased the marks of curling, one Kiev boy said:
– You were curly yesterday, stuck out today.
They say to a four year old boy:
– How shaggy and wavy you are.
He immediately equipped this phrase with two very sonorous rhymes.:
I am shaggy and wicked,
I'm wiggly and shaggy!
– Saint, you can't eat lying down.
– Good, i will eat with.
Having barely learned to read, my five-year-old Mura saw the title of Ilya Repin's book “far closer” and read: “Distant near”.
“Distant near” she liked, and she was upset, when the adults indicated, that she is wrong, and took away her rhyme in this way.
– Youth will come to the festival… But I won't go…
– so, you – antiquity?
This feature of children's speech was once noticed by Chekhov. In his story “Three years” girl, obeying the same peculiar inertia, talks about Abel and Cain:
– Abel and Kavel *.
* A.P. Chekhov, compositions, t. 8, M. 1947, pp. 431.
knives – spoons,
yolk – squirrel,
lump – sandy,
begining – finished,
postcard – closure,
deaf – hearing,
distant – close,
toy – culinary,
curly – sticking out,
youth – antiquity
the child's desire to rhyme words is felt everywhere, belonging to the same category of concepts, and thus systematize them either by contrast, either by similarity. Lidochka, four and a half years, tells a story to herself:
– The nanny nursed him, his mother was mother.
And that's what Lyalya said, when some girl in the bathhouse stole mom's shoes:
– She tried them on and pissed off.
Sometimes these words, parallel in meaning, by themselves form some semblance of a verse – especially if there are not two of them, and four. This is the parallel created by six-year-old Varya Rogovina, having first established for yourself, what is the fundamental difference between some representatives of military affairs from others.
Generals – land,
Admiral – wet,
she said and, catching in this phrase an unexpected verse, began to repeat it (with a small option):
Generals – land,
Admiral – waterway.
N.A. Menchinskaya tells in her diary about her son, three and a half years, recollecting the couplet:
I have for Petenka
Lollipops in a bag,
the boy pronounced the couplet like this:
I have for Petenka
Lollipops in a bag.
That is, from an approximate rhyme, he made an exact rhyme *.
* N.A.Menchinskaya, Child development diary, M.-L. 1948, pp. 123.
Vasya Katanyan, five and a half years, speaking the word “little table”, often added molik-polik. The chair he had was a cartoon chair. He called himself Vasya-Tarasya, grandmother – grandmother-bell and so on.
Son of Gvozdev – truth, in the seventh year of life – created such a wonderful combination of rhymed words: woodpecker *.
* A.N.Gvozdev, The study of children's speech, M. 1961, pp. 327.
To some extent, this is typical for adults., as evidenced by such inseparable combinations of words, like a miracle Yudo, Tom Thumb, tare-bars, shuri-muri, eyelashes and so on.
Children gravitate towards these “bivalve” words are much stronger, than adults. Igor, three years seven months:
– Dad, and they will broadcast multi-remotes on TV today?
This ringing multi-remote control is much more attractive to children's hearing, than a languid and viscous animation.
In general, any rhyme gives a child special joy..
When she accidentally turns up to him in conversation, he plays with her, repeats it several times, uses it for an impromptu song.
– Where did you put the soap? – mother asks the boy.
He answers without any attempt at rhyme:
– And over there, where is the water.
AND, just saying these words, notices, that a consonance flashed in them. And instantly begins to chant:
Over there,
Where is the water.
Over there,
Where is the water.
Children are amazingly responsive to those random and unintended rhymes, which sometimes arise in our prosaic speech.
Mother sends five-year-old Vera to the kitchen:
– Go tell nanny: nanny, Mom allowed me to give me tea with milk.
Vera immediately caught the rhythm here, your favorite four-foot trochee, and, ran into the kitchen, cried:
Nanny, mom allowed
Give me tea with milk,
And now the guys are calling
Uncle Stepa with a lighthouse!
That is, to the first couplet I fastened two lines from “Uncle Stepa” Sergei Mikhalkov, and it came out without any strain, unexpectedly for her.
Sergei Mikhalkov has a lovely poem “Rider”. It has a distinct rhythm and sonorous rhymes. But the last line, at the whim of the author, is written in unexpected prose. The poem ends like this:
I don't want to go into a ditch,
But you have to
I'm flying.
I didn't grab the mane,
And grabbed the nettle.
– Get away from me,
I will not ride this horse anymore.
Children, highly sensitive to poetic form, resent this breakdown of rhythm and the lack of expected rhyme. All too often, they not only reject the prose text, but they immediately come up with their own poetic line, which is suggested to them by the whole structure of the previous verses. They write to me about five-year-old Ninochka, which, after hearing the ending “Rider”, said indignantly:
– Not true. You read wrong. Need to say:
– Get away from me,
I will not ride a horse.
Almost all children, to whom, as an experience, I read these poems by Mikhalkov, reacted to them the same way. Needless to say, that it was precisely this reaction that Sergei Mikhalkov was counting on.
II. Poem pickups
The attraction to rhyming sounds is inherent to one degree or another in all children from two to five: all of them with pleasure – one might even say, with rapture – indulge in long plays in harmony. Three-year-old Galya says, eg, his mother:
– Mama, tell: Galunchik.
Mom says:
– Galunchik.
Galya rhymes:
– Mamunchik.
Then the mother says:
– Galyukha.
And Galya:
– Mamuha.
– Dumpling.
And Galya:
– Mommy.
– Galishche:
– Mommy.
– Pigeon.
– Mamumukha.
And so on. Sometimes this rhyme gymnastics lasts ten – Fifteen minutes. The girl really likes her, because, obviously, satisfies the essential needs of the child's brain. “When my ingenuity ends, – Galina's mother writes to me, – I switch to another word and say: Telephone. Galya says: Barmaton. – Telephone. – Barmatonische, etc.”.
F. Vigdorova has a similar record:
“I say: Сашуля.
Sasha answers: Mom.
I. Sashok.
Sasha. Mom.
I. Sashencia.
Sasha. Mammoth, Markvontzia”.

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  1. Darina

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