Two to five

Third, unknown to me age, invented words and obutki odetki (it was in the Black Sea steppe near Odessa), not knowing that, that these two words are exactly the same combination existed for centuries in the north, in the Olonets region. After all, he did not read the same ethnographic collections Rybnikov, recorded the kind of folk tale, where were you, by the way, such words: “I get on the promise of food, obutku and odetku”*.
* Songs, collected P.N.Rybnikovym, t. III, M. 1910, pp. 177.
This is the binomial formula “obutka and odetka” It has independently developed a child on the basis of the language of preconditions, which are given to him by adults.
– Oh you, dragonfly! – said the mother of his three-year Irina.
– I'm not a dragonfly, I lyud!
The mother at first did not understand this “people”, but then accidentally discovered, that a thousand kilometers, in the Urals, People have long called “lyudyu”. There and say:
– Are you for lyud?*
* Dahl gives this word as ancient (Dictionary, t. II, M. 1955, pp. 284).
In this way, baby sometimes independently come to the forms, which were created by the people for many centuries.
Possession of child's mind wonderfully methods, receptions, forms national slovotvorchestva.
Even the children's words, are not in the language, It seems almost existing: they might be, and only by chance they are not. They were greeted as old friends, I seemed to have heard them once. One can easily imagine some of the Slavic languages, where as full words exist serditki, and nikovoyny, and vsehny.
Or, eg, word nyrba. The child made him only because, I did not know a word of our adult “diving”. Bathing in the bath, he had told his mother:
– Mama, with the team: “To prepare nyrbe!”
Nyrba – excellent word, vigorous, sonorous; I would not be surprised, If any of the Slavic tribes appeared in the living word nyrba everyday life, and whosoever shall say, that is a word alien to the linguistic consciousness of the people, that from the word go has created the word walking, from the word mow – kosba, the word fire – shooting, etc..
I was told about a boy, who said to his mother.
– Give me thread, I nanityvat beads.
So he comprehended the words “strung on a thread”.
I am hearing from some boy, if his horse kopytnula, I was at the first opportunity screwed up these words in a conversation with my young daughter. The girl not only knew immediately their, but not even guessed, that they are not in the language. These words seemed to her perfectly normal.
Yes, they are and have – sometimes even “more normal” our. Why, Indeed, child talk about horses – horse? After all, a horse for a child is enormous. Can he call her pet name? Feeling the utter falsity of this diminutive, he makes horses – horse, emphasizing its immensity.
And that it is not only with horse: pillow for him often – blew, a cup – caxa, dandelion – oduvan, grebeshok – greʙjox.
– Mama, look, without grebeha cock.
– cow, what we found syroegu!
– In the window at the Foundry is such igruha!
Son of a professor A.N.Gvozdeva called big spoon – logos, great mouse – myha:
– Give me a second log!
– That's what myha!
Cannon called it – down, balalaika – balalaya *.
* A.N.Gvozdev, The study of children's speech (chapter “Formation of a child's grammatical structure of Russian language”), M. 1961, pp. 312 and 327.
Natasha Shurchilova mother's sandals calls: bootless.
In all these cases, the child receives the same way, how did Mayakovsky, forming the word puppy shape Shchen:
Of all the forces puppy
Beggar Shchen wail.
unconsciously SKILL
Redefining the word our, child often does not notice his word creation and remains confident, if correctly repeats heard.
It struck me for the first time, when the four-year boy, whom I met on the train, became persistently ask me, to let him twirl inhibited.
He had just heard the word brake – and, thinking, it repeats its, has attached to it the end of the ILA.
App end it was a revelation to me: a tiny boy, as well as finely felt, that there needs suffix “l”, showing gun, instrumentality subject. The boy said to himself, as if: if that, than sew, It called an awl, and that, than wash, – soap, and that, than digging, snout, and that, than thresh, – threshed, means, then, than hinder, – inhibited.
One word indicating, that in the mind of the child made such a clear classification of suffixes for discharge and the headings, which is warmed and mind would present considerable difficulties.
And this classification seemed even more wonderful, that the child himself does not even know about it.
Such unconscious verbal creativity – one of the most amazing phenomena of childhood.
Even those errors, which often happens to make a baby with this creative assimilation of speech, demonstrates the tremendous work done by the his brain to coordinate knowledge.
Although the child and could not answer, why does he call the postman pochtanikom, This reconstruction shows the word, that practically quite palpable role suffix Old Russian nickname for him, which characterizes a person mainly for his professional work of a firefighter, athlete, sapozhnyk, farmer, oven-bird. Calling postman pochtanikom, child included a neologism in the discharge of these words and did quite well, because if the, who works in the garden, there is a gardener, then working at the post office there really pochtanik. Let the adults laugh pochtanikom. The child is not to blame, that grammar is not observed strict logic. If our words have been created by some single straight-line basis, children's utterances would not seem to us such fun, they often “rather” of grammar and “corrected” her.
Sure, to accept our language, child in your word creation copies Adults. Wildly would think, that he was in any was as creating our language, changes its grammar, its vocabulary.
Without knowing it, it directs all its efforts to ensure, to learn by analogy created by many generations of adult linguistic richness.
But he uses the analogy with such skill, with the sensitivity to the sense and value of those elements, that make up the word, it is impossible not to admire the remarkable force of his wit, attention and memory, which manifests itself in the difficult daily work.
The slightest tinge of each grammatical form guessed child with fly, and, when he needed to create a (or recreate in its memory) or that word, He uses exactly the suffix, exactly what the end, which are secret laws of the native language are necessary for the shade of thought and image.
When the three-year first saw Nina in the garden worm, she whispered in a fright:
– Mama, Mama, What polzuk!
And this end uk superbly expressed its attitude to panic monster. not polzenysh, not polzushka, not polzunchik, crawler for not, and certainly polzuk! Sure, This polzuk not invented by a child. Here imitation of such words, like a beetle and a spider. But still wonderful, that a small child in a moment found for the root in its arsenal various morpheme is the, which in this case is most suitable.
The two-year Dzhanochka, bathing in a bath and causing the doll to dive, I kept saying:
– Here pritonula, and here vytonula!
Only the deaf will notice refined plastics and thin the meaning of these two words. Pritonut not that drown, this – drown in the time, to finally emerge.
A three-Jura, helping his mother to equip a small Valya a walk, pulled out from under the bed shoes Valya, kaloşi, stockings and leggings and, feeding, He said:
– That's all valine shoes!
One this common word “obuvalo” He immediately marked all four subjects, that related to shoe.
Just a great expressive word Spatter, had composed a five-year boy:
– We had a good swim. This raised Spatter!
The same sense of language has shown that rural child of five and a half years, which the, hearing, that adults called ABC primer, and imagining, that exactly reproduces their term, I called the book “tutor”: obviously, tutor (as “sharpener”, “threshed”, “teeth” and so on.) there is for him a tool of learning. A suffix nickname escaped from a child, since no analogy with “washbasin”, “bush”, “kettle” it is the word “textbook” I could not find.
another child, Calling Solonka solnytsey, too, it was more than right: if tea receptacle – Teapots, and a repository of sugar – sugar-bowl, the container of salt not saltshaker, and solnytsa.
Here again, the child's speech coincides with the folk, for, turns out, solnice word as widely spread in the villages, bullet, cardboard, oborodet and other words, which in my eyes independently created three year olds, were brought up far from the influences “common people” speeches.
Incidentally, I note, that these words created baby, as “oduvan”, “syroega”, “smeyanie”, There are some places in the nation *.
* VIDal, Dictionary, t. II, M. 1955, pp. 574 and so on. IV, pp. 242, 376.
Actually, I think, that starting with two years of every child becomes a short time a brilliant linguist, and then, for five or six years, this genius loses. In the eight years of her children are no longer in sight, because the need for it has passed: at this age the child is already fully mastered the basic wealth of the native language. If such a flair for verbal forms did not leave a child as they develop, He has ten years have eclipsed any of us flexibility and brightness speech. No wonder Leo Tolstoy, speaking to adults, I wrote:
“[Child] aware of the laws of the formation of words better than you, because no one so often does not invent new words, like children”*.
* LNTolstoy, Full. SOBR. Op., t. VIII, M. 1936, pp. 70.
Get at least a word “yet”, belonging to the category of immutable words. In addition to the verb “eschokat”, about which we speak later, child managed to make the word “yet” noun, and is subject to the law declension.
The two-year Sasha asked:
– Where are you going?
– for pesochkom.
– But you have brought.
– I'm going for eschom.
Sure, when we talk about the child's creative power, its sensitivity, his voice genius, we, although not believe these statements hyperbole, Yet we should not forget, what (as mentioned above) common foundation of all these qualities is an imitation, since every new word, created by a child, It is happening to them in accordance with the rules, which are given to him by adults.
But he copies adults is not so easy (not so obediently), It appears different observers. Below, in section “Analysis of adult linguistic heritage”, sufficient evidence will be given, proving, that in their perception of speech, the child is already two years old is making a critical assessment, analysis, the control.
Their language and thinking skills the child acquires only in communication with other people.
Once this communication and makes him a man, ie there is a speaking and thinking. But if communication with other people is not worked out in it for a short time special, increased sensitivity to speech material, which give him adult, He would have remained until his death in the mother tongue foreigner, repeating soulless dead textbooks stamps.
In the old days I happened to meet with children, which for various reasons (mostly at the whim of wealthy parents) imposed from infancy dictionary and operation of a foreign language, mostly French.
These unfortunate children, from the beginning separated from the element of the native language, not owned nor his, no foreign language. Their speech in both cases was the same anemic, beskrovna, deathly – precisely because, that at the age of two to five they were deprived of opportunities to work creatively it.
the, who in early childhood on the way to mastering the native language does not create such words, as “polzuk”, “vytonut”, “pritonut”, “inhibited” etc., It never becomes a complete master of their language.
Sure, many neologisms child often indicate only his inability to master at first, certain deviations from the grammar rules, inherent in the common speech. else “created” rebenkom rečenie, It seems to us so distinctive, arose, in fact, just because, that the child is too straightforward to apply the words of these norms, not knowing about any exceptions. All this is so. AND, but, I have no doubt a great voice of a gifted child.
It is not only the classification of endings, prefixes and suffixes, he quietly to himself makes in his mind a two-year, but also to the ugadke, with which it to create a new word he chooses he needs a role model. Imitation is the most creative act here.
Another wrote K. Ushinskiy:
“Involuntarily wonder instinct, with whom he [child. – KC] noticed extremely subtle difference between the two words, apparently, very similar… Could it be that be, if the child, learning the native language, It is not absorbed by the particles of the creative force, which gave people the opportunity to create a language? look, how hard a foreigner acquired the instinct of a foreign language; and the acquired ever quite? German twenty years will live in Russia and can not even purchase the knowledge of language, which has a three-year child!”*
* K. Ushinskiy, Mother Tongue, Sobral. Op., t. II, M. 1948, pp. 559.
GREATEST hard worker
I shudder to think, a great many grammatical forms sprinkled on the poor child's head, and the child, as if nothing had happened is guided in all this chaos, constantly distributing random elements on the headings to hear the word and not even noticing his colossal work.
In the adult skull would burst, if he were in a little time to digest the multitude of grammatical forms, who so freely and easily absorbs two-year linguist. And Esslin stupendous work, performed by them at this time, yet amazingly the unparalleled ease, with which he performs this work.
Truly a child is the greatest mental worker of our planet, which the, Luckily, even unaware of this.
I just said,, what, in my experience, to eight years of age the child is a sophisticated flair language blunted. But it does not follow, that his speech development in any whatsoever as suffering with the damage. in front of: having lost the recent ability to create the distinctive verbal form, we talked about, he shall compensate the loss handsomely with new and valuable qualities of his language development.
“At that time, – says Professor A.N.Gvozdev, – the child is already in possession of such a measure throughout the complex grammar system, including the most subtle, operating in the Russian language syntactic and morphological patterns of order, as well as solid and unmistakable use of multiple stand alone individual phenomena, that digestible Russian language becomes truly native to him. And the child gets it perfect instrument of communication and thinking”*.
* A.N.Gvozdev, The study of children's speech, M. 1961, pp. 466.
Sure, This is true. This can not be doubted. Linguistic work the child passes are now on a new track. use the results, obtained in the previous period, child arming for a more complex and diverse verbal communication.
It is obvious to anyone, Who, eg, with sufficient attention examine the mental skills of pupils, recently emerged from pre-school age.
word creation period left them behind, but knowledge of the native language has been firmly won them. Now, on the threshold of the school, before them a new challenge: realize and understand the theory, that between the ages of two and five, they instinctively recognized in practice. With this daunting task they cope admirably, which could not have happened, if the eighth year of the life of their voice talent has faded completely.
This is true, – but only partly. Immutable fact remains, that the speech acquisition process takes place most rapidly is aged from two to five. It was during this period in a child's brain produces the most intensive development of the generalization of grammatical relations. The mechanism of generation to the point-wise expedient and, that one is called “brilliant linguist” of baby, mind that within such a short time it organizes many grammatical schemes.
It has long been established, at the age of about one year in the vocabulary of the child shall be calculated units; by the end of the second year of three hundred up to two hundred and fifty words, and it comes to a thousand by the end of the third year, ie immediately, just one year, child triples your vocabulary, then the accumulation of words has been going more slowly *. The same applies to the grammatical forms, which takes possession at the time the child. I once tried to make a rough calculation of these forms. I have to get them at least seventy. And all these “generalizatory”, formed in the brain of a child once and for all, for life, It occurs in greatest numbers at the age of three to four, when linguistic genius child manifested with particular force.

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