Two to five

And we said that science fiction and mystics: throw to fantasize, get off the ground, be realistic, look into the true facts of reality – and you will cease to tremble before Tom Thumb and Puss in Boots. You will see, that at a certain age tale of a child disappears, как дым, that all magic and sorcery demagnetized for it themselves (unless it is in a healthy environment), and he began a period of cruel tales of exposure:
– As the Maiden could breathe, if it was not easy?
– How could Baba Yaga rush through the air in a mortar, if in a mortar there were propeller?
Tale has done its job: help your child navigate the world, He enriched his spiritual life, She made him feel fearless imaginary participant of battles for justice, good, for freedom, and now, when the need for it has passed, child destroys its own.
The grandmother tells her granddaughter:
– …I hit his forehead on the ground and make it clear falcon…
– That's not true! – shouts indignant granddaughter. – Just on his forehead grew a bump, and all!
But under seven-eight years of age tale is the most healthy food for each normal child – not treat, a vital and very nutritious bread, and no one has the right to take it from him irreplaceable food.
Yet it is precisely such a robbery child engaged while pedologue.
Not only that, they took away the children and “Fairy tales” Pushkin, and “Humpbacked Horse”, and “alibaba”, and “Cinderella” – they demanded from us, by writers, that we were their accomplices in this evil and senseless reality.
And of course, They were sycophants-hacks, who for the sake of pleasing superiors diligently put to shame in his writings tale and otherwise mocked her miracles.
This was done on the following template: He portrayed sprightly, impudent boy, which all tales Trin-grass. To him flew fairy and bring cloth on the ground. But he
Hands
trousered
cram into,
burst out,
whistle
And said:
“Highly, aunt,
You really are lying!
To what is now, citizen,
Your “magic tablecloth”.
Nobody will be surprised
This thing in Narp…”
When he began to talk about Humpbacked Horse, he again “He stuffed his hands in his pockets” and as I said zabubenno:
Well, I prefer,
You know, tram car.
boorish, cheeky, hamovaty toddler enjoyed the full sympathy of the author.
And these books were a lot of, can not say, so they do not affect the children of the then.
With a sense of acute pity I read in a magazine, as a four year old turned to such an extent to fool his upbringing, what, after hearing the poetic tale of a mother “Geese, swans”, I began to expose her of lying:
– You're lying, Mama: oven does not say, and Apple does not say, and the river does not say, and the girl is not hidden in the river, Girl drowned *.
______________
* “On the Road to a new school”, 1926, № 11, pp. 9.
And it pleased, because proud teacher, that the boy was so smart and sober: she quotes him as a model for other, although, repeat, in each, who knows and loves children, this child is a wrenching pity, if he is blind or hunchback.
Unaware of his terrible flaw, try to speak with him, like a normal kid. Arousing his children's imagination, someone said thoughtlessly:
– You little squirrel! Here are your legs!
He became angry and said haughtily:
– I'm not a squirrel, I Leva, and I do not have legs, and his hands!
Sure, Mendeleev sort of martinet not work, and unless the pitcher's snout.
Luckily, such cripples – rarity.
The vast majority of four year olds using the spontaneously created games and fairy tales samodelkovyh defended its normal child's psyche from childhood strangler stranglers and.
From the foregoing, it does not follow, if I only dream about and, to Soviet children from morning till night humored fairy tales. You need a dosage – and the most severe. Sure, monarchical and clerical tale need to ruthlessly cast out. But it was impossible to prevent, that on the basis of his theories melkoutilitarnyh pseudo-educators robbed Soviet children the great heritage of the world of classical and folk literature.
Dominion alleged fighters for alleged realistic education of children was very short-lived. In Moscow, in Leningrad and other cities made a whole cohort of ardent defenders of fairy tales, inspired and led by Gorky.
Persecutors tales retreated from damage, and all at one time it seemed, they finally put to shame.
III. It's time to wise up!
1934
For such illusions were many reasons, because it is already in 1934 year, especially after the memorable performances of Gorky at the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers – everywhere began to appear repentant teachers, editors, heads of kindergartens, that with the same zeal engaged in planting tales, how just eradicated it.
“Young guard”, and then Detizdat began at that time in a myriad of print copies and “Hiawatha”, and “Humpbacked Horse”, and “Munchausen”, and “Fairy tales” Pushkin, and Russian folk tales, and all sorts of other creatures of fantasy.
But it was too early to celebrate victory. In it I could see based on personal experience. It happened to me in the same year published in the journal “hedgehog” brilliant retelling of the ancient myth of Perseus, Andromeda and Medusa Gorgone. And immediately to the editor “food” It was sent such a letter – from Gomel – one teacher:
“Dear Comrade Editor! I read a number 1 your magazine “hedgehog” placed on a page. 24 Greek tale “brave Perseus”, my school children surrounded me with questions, Why write such nonsense in our magazine… How can we explain to children the absurdity and meaninglessness described in this episode the story, saturated the grossest, absurd and meaningless superstition?
In my opinion, this tale devoid of any artistic and literary beauty…
The head of the school A.Rappoport”.
I wanted to humbly point Rappoport, that the myth of Perseus is the beauty and artistry attracted the ages of first-class sculptors, playwrights, poets – and Ovid, and Sophocles, Euripides, and Benvenuto Chellini, and Rubens, and Tiziana, and Kornelya, and Heredia, and Canova.
I would like to recall Marx, who has repeatedly testified, that the ancient Greek epic and ancient Greek art, who grew up on the basis of mythological, “continue to provide us with artistic pleasure, and in a certain sense be the norm and unattainable model”*.
______________
* Marx and Engels, compositions, t. 12, pp. 737.
But neither Marx Rappoport, Euripides us not decree. He stands firm on its:
“In my opinion, this tale devoid of any artistic and literary beauty”.
And refers to children: if entrusted to his care the children were very angry, when they saw “Perseus” In the magazine, and immediately declared a collective protest against the printing of Greek myths.
this I, sorry, I do not believe. Can not be, that in all his school survived not normal children with poetic feeling alive! Can not be, he was able to completely erase all of the kids that inherent attraction to science fiction!
And if two or three of them and found, who did not understand this legend, so because of the fact he and Dan Rappoport, to explain the incomprehensible.
Using “Persea” for school talks, he could talk to them about the origins of myths, the constellation Cassiopeia, Andromedы, Perseus, he could read their scientific and atheistic lecture about the richness of the Christian religion, the myths of pagan antiquity, the relationship of mother of Perseus with the Mother of God, “Virgin Mary”, similarity of the dragon, which was to devour Andromeda, Keith biblical prophet Jonah, etc., etc., etc.
All this, of course, in that case, if it is an educated man. And if not, He inciting children to create the most valuable art and bother the editors of children magazines ridiculous and laughable chicanery.
The absurdity of such chicanery was, to my mind, therein, что всякое гениальное произведение поэзии, издаваемое для советских детей, – будет ли то былина об Илье Муромце, or “Рейнеке Лис”, or “Мюнхаузен”, or “Персей”, – these people are declared politically harmful and with such demagoguery justified their obscurantism.
Still, out of compassion for Rappoport, I did not bring the lines of his letter, where is he, like other persecutors tales, depicts being printed “Perseus” almost counter-revolutionary intrigue. But now I, perhaps, I bring these lines, because without them can not do any of those stranglers childhood.
What is the, by Rappaport, political malignancy “Perseus”? And in that, what “Персей”, as it may sound crazy, damages… lyeninizmu. What it damages Leninism? And he, you see, printed in the room, All pages are devoted to the memory of Lenin supposedly.
Rappoport and writes to the editor:
“Particularly haunts me my nine year old son, pupil of the second group, who angrily accuses me (as if I'm to blame):
– Look, dad, the entire magazine is dedicated to the memory of Lenin, and suddenly this nonsense about some (!) Meduze, on the gray broads (!) etc!”
And boasts Rappoport, that he learned “All children correctness indignation” and he was displeased with his son.
Meanwhile, if it were bound to resent someone, it solely on his treacherous son, who tricked his way treacherous. For about the number “food”, where printed “Персей”, quite impossible to say, what he “all dedicated to the memory of Lenin”.
– Or are you blind and can not see, – so I had to say to his son Rappoport, that immediately, on these pages, printed a story about the hare? But cartoons, where the circus is depicted. But a poem about heroes-divers, and here's an article about the puppet theater, but on homemade parsley, but an orange plantation, – and all this, in your opinion, Dedicated to the memory of Lenin? Do not you ashamed to lie, dear son?
But none of this Rappoport said, but, opposite, обрадовавшись, that can be brought under a shattering tale hated mine, used children's lies, to give the printing of the ancient myth of the political nature of sedition.
That's the whole purpose of his letter: at least by means of fake prove unreliability of the great works of poetry.
And where they got, these two Rappoport, that Lenin's memory will be insulted, if Soviet children, heirs of all the best, that created the old culture, gradually learn classical creations of art?
After all, if the team classes of all countries still have robbed the working masses and Euripides, and Sophocles, and Ovid, and Benvenuto Chellini, now, precisely because Leninism, these masses reclaim the enormous cultural values, to which they had no access.
If thousands and hundreds of thousands of workers in the USSR we delight in Shakespeare, Mozart, Hermitage Ribeiro and Rembrandt, if the children are working now fill and Conservatory, and the Academy of Fine Arts, – in all this the victory of Leninism.
And you have to be gloomy Tartuffe, to assert, if the cause of Lenin suffered the slightest damage, if with pedagogical tact and in a strictly deliberate form we give to the child and the Soviet myth of Prometheus, and poems about the flight of Icarus, and “odyssey”, and “iliade”, and the legend of the great Hercules…
But then again, I peered at the letter Rappoport and saw an amazing thing.
After all, this man does not know, that to him the ancient Greek myth! He managed somehow fantastically well to isolate themselves from the literature of all mankind, that he had not happened to come across any of the widely read books on any Andromeda, neither Medusa! He sincerely convinced, if all these brilliant images invented by me especially for magazine “hedgehog”, and this makes me a reprimand for, I'm a genius and wrote such masterpieces!
And all this would only be funny, if not flaunted incredible signature under the letter Rappoport: Head of school-so.
By reading this signature, We should not laugh, and cry, for it is not a random passer-by in front of us, entitled fence irresponsible nonsense, as the most authoritative teacher in the whole school, best educated, most cultured. And if that is the best, then what are the other? What are the details and the tastes of ordinary teachers, if one of the most qualified, little it came to literary judgments, found in this case is ignorance, that took me by Ovid!
That's why I print a letter Rappoport, Rappoport that even now is not alone. He has many allies, and, although they no longer have the opportunity to demonstrate their narrow-minded in the magazine and newspaper articles, they stubbornly carry on their line in school-teaching practices and dismiss any of the children – even brilliant – piece of art, if it is called a fairy tale, not ashamed to detect when it is ignorance, which is equal to their aplomb.
I would understand Rappoport, if he objected to registration, I gave Perseus. It would be very instructive to compare this version of the myth with the, that were created by the Anglo-American children, e.g. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Charles Kingsley. But Rappaport this work can not afford, because here you need to know and think, not just shaking his fists.
Rappoport I pay so much attention because, These leftist Froebel increasingly use kvazirevolyutsionnymi slogans, to slow down and distort the literary development of Soviet children.
In Moscow and Leningrad, they quieted down, but on the periphery still raging. And every time, or when a young Detizdat “Young guard” issue for children “Hiawatha”, or “Mowgli”, or “Fairy tales” Pushkin, or “Munchausen”, the stranglers childhood cry: “The revolution in danger!” – and save the revolution… from Pushkin *.
______________
* I remind, it is written in 1934 year.
IV. And again about Myunhauzenom
1936
Shortly after, how bookstores were in my presentation of the long-awaited “The adventures of Baron Munchausen”, to the newspaper “For communist education” It was sent to a “Open letter K.Chukovsky”, designed by the author for publication in this newspaper:
“comrade Chukovskij! I bought my daughter eight years your book “The adventures of Baron Munchausen”. I bought and, not reading, I gave her birthday, to make the child a pleasant. I gave the book, not reading, because, First of all, There was no time to read, and secondly, on the first sheet it was clearly written: “For kids”…
What was surprising and disappointing daughter, and with it, and my, when we began to read this book. This “the most truthful person on earth” so lying about himself and his exploits, that knocks the kids confused. He comes off or falls inside the human head, and then appears again. He flies to the moon. And if he flew with the aim to give the children some of the details of the moon surface, etc., the flight would have been fantastic though, but still interesting, and then some from start to finish improbable attempt to climb the leguminous plants to the moon, go down the straw rope. The most ridiculous ideas about “Lunarian”, their way of life, etc..
In the place of the book, where the author draws fauna of Ceylon, he literally knocks the kids confused, giving a strange picture of his meeting (?) lion, tiger, whale. book places makes baby laugh, but always with an exclamation: “That's lying!” In most cases, the child is perplexed. I am interested in one: for what, Comrade Chukovskij, you translated this book?.. You can not lie without reservation for a hundred sheets!”
I have already got used to such letters, and the only sign this message a little surprised me: “Vyazniki, Ivanovo region. Librarian S.D.Kovaleva”. strange, I thought, librarians Vyazniky! It is believed, the librarian – educated man, governing education broad range of readers, Kovalev and this is not even heard of “Barone Myunhauzene” and, not at all ashamed, states, that the plot of the book was world-renowned for her complete surprise.
I decided to write her a letter, I pulled up to my paper and started:
“Dear Comrade Kovalev! pedagogical value “Munchausen” It is…”
But then it occurred to me, that it does not expect from me any explanation, because in such a case, why would she contact me through the medium of the newspaper column? I would have written a private letter. But no, her writing an article for a newspaper, and she only pretends, if asked, for which I have translated this book.
Its rhetorical questions. If you get a grasp of its lines closer, It becomes clear, she asked me not to, to obtain the necessary information, but in order, to publicly denounce me in my nepohvalnom predilection for such nonsense, as “Мюнхаузен”. She feels the judge, and I was accused. We are dealing not with the inquisitive and open-hearted ignorance, and with it demagogiey, which so recently poisoned our criticism of children's literature.
Sure, argue with S.D.Kovalevoy I will not. It is enough to demonstrate it to the reader: here are some of the characters we have recruited “principal” tales of opponents.
Kovalev let her brother Rappoport in this sense, very typical: their method – leftist slogans and bravado unbridled ignorance.
V. Philistine METHODS CRITICISM
1956
But the years passed, and all these bigots have disappeared under the powerful influence of the Soviet public. The newspapers and magazines are increasingly began to appear articles, praising the great educational value of fairy tales.
Now it is generally accepted truth, that the tale is improving, enriches and humanizes the child's psyche, since listening to a story the child feels an active participant and always identifies himself with the pace of its characters, who fights for justice, good and the freedom of. That's the active sympathy with small children a noble and courageous heroes of literary fiction and is the main educational value of fairy tales.
How did, Indeed, not happy for a new generation of children! Finally, they will be given, and, moreover, in the copious amounts of, vitamin, nourishing spiritual food, providing children a normal and proper mental growth. It has long been not found in the print such daredevils, who dare to openly and directly oppose the fantastic tales.
And in life, at home, in practice the tale really no one is terrible: metropolitan and regional publishers to freely supply the Ukrainian children, Azerbaijani, Chinese, Indian, Romanian fairy tales, not to mention the Danish, French, German… Subject of indiscriminate malignancy tales handed over to the archive – and forgotten. Now the question is transferred to a narrower scope: if the child is bad or that a certain fairy tale? If she does his mind some grievous injury?
Anxiety perfectly legitimate, and it is impossible not to be respected.
but sadly, that our teaching experience is still not developed any sustainable principles to determine the harm or benefit of a particular category of fairy tales. sadly, that there is great scope for narrow-minded, arbitrary judgments.
It happened, eg, M.I.Krasevu famous composer write a children's opera based on the story of my “Flies Boldly Buzzing”. I heard this opera on the radio one of the residents of Transbaikalia, healthcare worker Vladimir Vas'kovsky, and he wrote “literary Gazette”:
“Such tales are not needed, not only musically draw, but generally publish,. Tale causes children to some sympathy poor, innocent victim fly, to “brave” mosquitoes and other parasites. And it is strange: one side, in our country is carried out systematic, ruthless struggle against insects, and on the other – separate (?!) writers produced works in the light of the desire to cause sympathy for parasites”.
“literary newspaper” He refused to share his fears. Then he complained about it to other instances, where his letter was forwarded to the Commission on Children's Literature Writers' Union. In the letter, he again repeated his attacks on “fly”, and along with a great story of Eugene Charushin “Volchishko”, wherein, to his great indignation, small children are instilled malicious sympathy for wolves.
To my mind, He did quite well. All, what we, literati, write, readers have the right to judge, as they please, and express their opinions in any form. If these judgments are erroneous, nothing prevents any of us to stand up for the truth and appeal against sentence.
I have this right, and try to take advantage of, especially since the judgment transbaikalian criticism seem to me very typical of many similar statements: it represents one of the innumerable legions thinkers, to measure children's literature works exactly the same yardstick.
it, of course, could not be understood by children's literature Writers' Union, the Commission.
I'm sure, that she had just pointed accuser “Volchishki” and “flies” to the utter uselessness of utilitarian criteria, with whom he had so innocently approaches to determining the usefulness or harmfulness of fairy tales.
After all, if we use such criteria, have to reject, destroy not only these two poor books, but dozens of other whole, and first and foremost folk tales, songs and jokes about hares, which expressed the most tender feelings for these rodents and pests.
rabbits, zaynky, bunnies, zayushki – since time immemorial calls it our folklore for children, created over the centuries, and an abundance of the most endearing forms shows, that the people – Really, a good teacher – not at all afraid to vaccinate their young pupils love for these voracious creatures:
Zainka my little white,
Zainka my gray,
Zaynka, poplyashy,
Zaynka, poskachi!
To all such works of folklore are quite applicable words kDUshinskogo:
“it… brilliant attempts of Russian folk pedagogy, I do not think, that someone was able to compete in this event with a pedagogical genius of the people”*.
______________
* K. Ushinskiy, About Russian folk tales, Favorites Collected. Op., t. 2, M. 1954, pp. 569-570.
And if used naively critic proposed criterion utilitarian, will have to take away from children and Nekrasov “grandfather Mazaya”, which causes infantile in the hearts of warm sympathy for hares:
hares – here too, – sorry for them to tears!
It is a pity to tears – you think! It is a pity to tears rodents and pests! And rejoice, how jubilant the boys, when Mazai rescues all these birds from death and releases them into the woods, that they – even afraid to say! – and further multiplied in the wild.
Little of: To complete the disaster, in our folklore, and then it is taught to children, like rabbits – loyal and faithful friends of man, guarding it from predators gardens, if they do not only destroy the cabbage, but watered and groomed her:
I zayushka, I greyish,
The cities I go *,
I kept the cabbage,
And at the time of the owner
Shall water the seedlings **.
______________
* vegetable gardens.
** Russian folk songs, collected P.V.Sheynom, M. 1870, pp. 48.
If you stand on the position of the Trans-Baikal criticism, you want to hide from the guys this song, giving them a false idea about these enemies of human. In the same way it will have to withdraw from everyday life of children and a story by Leo Tolstoy “Three Bears”, where the same – purely national – симпатия к этим губителям деревенских коров.
И что делать с народной сказкойФинистясный сокол”, где серый волк представлен малышам как благодетель и друг человека? И с народной сказкойВолшебное кольцо”, где благодетелем и другом человека выступает зловредный мышонок?
– Yes, я теперь вижу и сам, что поступил необдуманно, – ответил бы, вздыхая, Владимир Васьковский. – Но будьте добры, объясните, you are welcome, почему же народ, а вслед за ним и великий народный поэт забывают во время своего общения с детьми, что миллионами рублей исчисляется вред, наносимый зайцами нашим огородам и плодовым деревьям? Почему те самые крестьяне, которые кровно заинтересованы в истреблении хищников, внушают своим малышам пылкое сочувствие к ним?
Объяснить это, of course, нетрудно! – ответила бы детская Комиссия Союза писателей. – The fact, что тысячелетним своим педагогическим опытом народ имел возможность убедиться, what, сколько бы ни влюбляли младенца в сереньких и беленьких заинек, заек и заюшек, этот младенец, когда станет мужчиной, с удовольствием примет участие в охоте на зайцев. Никакая сказка, услышанная или прочтенная в детстве, не помешает ему бить их без всякой пощады. Создавая свои бессмертные детские песни и сказки, народ очень хорошо понимал, что они совсем не для того предназначены, чтобы заблаговременно осведомлять младенцев, какие звери будут им впоследствии вредны, а какие полезны. У детской сказки есть другие задачи, в тысячу раз более серьезные, чем эта классификация зверей.
Какие же это задачи? – спросил бы присмиревший Владимир Васьковский.

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  1. Darina

    I liked the production

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