Two to five

All this, of course, perfectly, but again, only if, if the teacher has a pedagogical tact. If it is his incessant captiousness too embarrass the kids in the free expression of their feelings and thoughts, if he will have no space of their emotional statements, he risks discolor their speech, make her anemic and lean, kill her in her wonderful childishness, and so cause her irreparable damage. Clumsy methods are not suitable, excessive zeal will be here only harmful, and good results can be achieved only to a teacher, which will act gradually, a mayor, not too obtrusive, almost unnoticed.
Chapter Two
tireless researcher
I. search for patterns
New to the world around us
mind of a child, we can not honor.
every, who expressed some absurd idea, we often say with exasperation:
– You child's logic!
Or:
– you talk, as a small child.
Or even offensive:
– silly, как дитя!
To many it seems quite fair: because really very often hear from small children the most absurd judgments and conjectures.
But if you think about it in these “absurdity”, and we will have to once and for all abandon this precocious views: we realize, that in these “absurdities” seen burning need for a minor reason in whatever was the sense of the world and set between the individual phenomena of life are strong causal links, which seeks to discern the child from an early age.
true, it is not always possible to him.
Once in the villa area such an event happened in Leningrad: when the sky was red at sunset, mad dog shot. Since then Maya, two and a half years, every time, when she saw the scarlet evening sky, I say with complete conviction:
– Again there is a mad dog killed!
It is easy to mock the young myslitelnitsey, imagine, if because of a dead dog, the sky glowed with fire! But does not this affect that precious desire for the establishment of links between individual facts, which is the driving force behind all man-Sciences?
This urge often leads the child to the most fantastic conclusions. here, eg, four-way Tasia learned word “scientist”. For the first time with this word, she met in the circus, where scientists have shown dogs. therefore, six months later when she heard, that the father of her friend – scientist, she asked cheerfully and loudly:
– so, Kirochkin dad – dog?
Error again very respectable: it affects a great ability of the human mind to apply to any new complex unfamiliar phenomena of life experience, obtained in other areas.
But the experience of the child microscopically small, and because the child uses it sometimes inattentively.
The train collided with a pig and cut it in half. Disaster saw a five-year Summer Resident Zorya Kotinskaja and shed many tears. A few days later she got to meet a live pig.
– Pig is gelled! – I screamed in delight Zorya.
That's what a child knows no simple things, with whom he has to face! New to the world around us, he continually gets trapped, piling mistake on mistake.
Every kid makes a myriad of similar errors, based on the deepest ignorance of the most basic things and phenomena.
My three year old son for the first time met with pine cones, when they were lying on the ground under the trees. And only after a couple of months to see them on the pine branches from the upper floors of our house:
– Cones on the tree climbed somehow.
To what meager information Small children about simple rules of life, best seen from the stunningly naive questions and conjectures, with which they turn to seniors:
– Mama, who was also born: you or me?
– Dad, and when you were little, are you a boy or a girl?
– I like snow more than sun. Snow can build a fortress, and that of the sun?
– I love garlic: it smells of sausage!
– Mama, nettle bites?
– Yes.
– And she barks?
– sea – it with one strand, and two river.
– Under the bed Myshkin live fledglings.
– And if you tear off your head and I'll take it in hand, will she talk?
– ostrich – this is giraffe. Once the bird is.
– Turkey – it is a duck with a bow.
Crumbles chickens cabbage leaves, they do not eat.
– This I told them in the reserve, for later, when they become bunnies.
– Mama, says that this radio: war, war! What it is – war?
– This is when the enemies attacked peaceful country, kill people, set fire to the city, village, villages.
Anka removes radio.
– Where you suffered Radio? Put in place!
– I carry the trash.
– Why?
– To avoid war!
– Whether, knife – Wilkin Muz?
– Ouch, moon with us, and flies in the tram and train! He is also wanted in the Caucasus!
– Dad, yes you why cumbereth, you are welcome, the pine… She makes it a breeze; and if you cut it down, I will quietly go for a walk in I.
The sun sinks into the sea.
– Why did it not hissed?
First I saw the crescent:
– Ouch, rocket moon broke.
– Who do you want to be, when you grow up?
– If I grow my aunt, doctor will. And grow uncle – engineer.
Valerik four years:
– Mama, you were a girl?
– Yes, It was.
– Went to school?
– went.
– And with whom I remained at home?
Alex took the bone of beef, I buried it beneath his window, has grown to a cow. In the evenings he watered the bone, and in the morning I ran to check, It does not seem out of the ground cow horn.
my Mura, three and a half years, I made a mad (and at the same time quite natural) act, which I then tried to celebrate in verse:
Mura took off her shoe,
In the garden buried:
“Grow, my shoe,
Grow, small!
Oh, how my shoe
I shall water Vodicka,
And grow a tree,
wonderful tree!
Will, will sandals
By the miracle tree jumping
And ruddy boots
With wonderful tree to pluck,
sentence:
“Ai to Murochka,
Ah yes, clever!”
– Dogs need hunter, that it is not attacked by rabbits?
I saw a huge thermometer on Nevsky:
– street ill.
Slava in a tissue box bee.
– Why do you torment bee? released her.
– How did! “released”! I'll milk it! She told me to give honey!
Evacuated the family settled to sleep in the open air at the station.
– Mama, why we did not bring our roof?
And the sun and the stars in an instant created a kid from a small fire in the oven:
– tops, tops, dad, let the fire flies in the sky, there is made of it and the sun and stars.
I knew the boy, which is often questioned mother, where it goes in the morning the night. Stumbled one day on the deep hole, the bottom of which there was darkness, he whispered understandingly:
– Now I know, where night hides.
And the cause of the spring:
– Winter was cold, she ran off somewhere.
The same knowledge in the field of political economy:
– Mama, stairs to the market, buy, you are welcome, more money.
Falling asleep in unusual Crimea:
– mammy, put out the sun.
I saw a train:
– That's where the cloud! Their locomotives do.
– Lie down on my pillow, be together my dream to watch!
When hurt two years Ale, he said threateningly:
– Who will make dark!
And he closes his eyes, convinced, that because of this the whole world was plunged into darkness.
– How did you sleep? I saw in a dream?
– well yes! It is in such darkness that you see something!
Three-year Irinushka gave tiny doll swing.
Writer Panteleev said:
– Can I have them swing?
– Not, they are still small.
– Mama, you know, the sky is made of plastic!
– Mama, What makes the crust on bread?
– of flour.
– And how then it to pull the bread?
The myth about the origin of Bactrian camels.
The mother says to her three-year-Lose:
– Get off the window, fall, shall horbatыy.
– A camel, probably, twice fell.
Lyulyaeva Helen asked her grandmother's china set.
– When you get married – gifts.
Helen immediately to his father:
– Daddy, expensive, let's you and I get married, and then we will have Chinese service.
Here every word, in every action affects the child's complete ignorance of the simplest things and phenomena.
But, of course, I mention these facts not then, to sneer at the children's ignorance.
in front of, they who inspire me respect for the child, since the show, how gigantic work have to travel a child's brain, so that by the age of seven to overcome this mental chaos.
One can not but wonder, for a short time, the child masters such boundless wealth of different knowledge.
Already at the time of arrival at the school, he completely freed from the misconceptions, which were characteristic of him at the age of two to five.
By this time, his knowledge becomes so great, he so wonderfully versed in the world of things and phenomena, that is not to say any of those phrases, which are provided in this chapter: he was already known to strongly, that bumps are not a tree vzlezayut, that the chickens do not become rabbits and fork is not the wife of a knife. Already she is immeasurably vast difference, what we notice in the amount of knowledge of younger preschool and primary school children, He speaks about the miraculous child intelligence activity in this early period of his life.
here, eg, how great is the ignorance of small children in the field of anatomy, physiology of humans and animals.
A naked boy stands before the mirror and says,, thinking:
– Eyes, to look… ears, to hear… Mouth, to speak… A pup ì? must be, for beauty…
– Yura nose diarrhea!
– Ouch, Mama, under my knee sick!
Seryozha, two and a half years, I watched with great curiosity, as a woman, came to his mother, breast feeding her baby girl.
– Mama, – he asked, – and when I was little, I, too, so drink milk?
– Yes.
– And you poured it in there?
Another equally profound question, given the same circumstances.
Mother breastfeeding newborn Katia. Senior Maxim five years, great-grandson of Maxim Gorky, He asked with great seriousness:
– A coffee there, too, is?
– In Alenka little finger on one hand!
– Mama, Mama, I have pains in the saucer!
And pointed to the kneecap.
– The cow of titenki carrot stick.
Granny took artificial teeth. Jura laughed:
– Now eyes vynmi!
– That is a miracle – I drink coffee, and water, and tea, and cocoa, and from me alone tea leaves.
– Mama, take off my shoe. I'm on the right foot palm itches.
– Brother, mammy, you have only two breasts?
– What did you think?
– And I thought – like our Damki: in two rows around the abdomen.
search for patterns
But no matter how much we may have led such errors, it is impossible not to admire manifested in their children's persistent desire of the mind to make at least an illusory order in disparate, fractional knowledge of the world.
Let the child at first establishes the association of a random basis, let other analogies they used false, all the same desire of the child to answer the questions: what for? why? how? – It is the most important quality of his infant psyche.
In this quest of laws – cultural foundation, pledge of the progress of human thought; and no matter how the child stumbled at first (and he stumbles at every step!), he is on the right path.
Each of the children's judgments, that we are led, It based either on a contiguity association, or in association by similarity.
Contiguity association applied, eg, two-year Maya – and, What is said at the beginning of the chapter. She was struck by two facts strongly, matched at random times: sunset sky, plamenevshee unprecedented scarlet colors, and shot a policeman in the dog.
It is because, These two facts were so unexpected for her, fresh and vibrant, it distinguished them from some other – and immediately established a causal relationship between them, thinking, if dogs are always kill, when the sky turns red.
Let this time she was wrong, but still, repeat, she showed a major tendency of the human mind to finding the mutual dependence of the observed facts.
Here, so to speak, embryo causal thinking, inherent to all mankind.
Of course, misjudgments children we, adults, We must eradicate the most persistent way; but we can not be blind to the wonderful ways of thinking, which operates the child even, when making mistakes.
Errors will soon overcome life practice, skills as a cause-and-effect interpretation of the facts will remain a child forever.
Wonderfully said about this at the Sechenov: “The child begins to realize the objects of the external world, not only in isolation, but also on the part of mutual relations, as a whole of objects to each other, and portions of each individual item to your whole. Understanding the child opened through those material being spring, that binds to the objects of the external world and which form the basis of how ordinary, and the scientific worldview.
From elementary reflections child grows little by little, is the grand chain of knowledge, which, starting most superficial dissection of the specific facts of the material world, crowned accurate, infallible mathematical knowledge”*.
______________
* IMSechenov, Who and how to develop the psychology? Selected philosophical and psychological works, M. 1947, pp. 268.
from “superficial dissection of the facts” Mayan, as we have seen, It has already moved to the determination of their mutual relations. true, she even attempt does not determine the quality of the observed her things, but simply binds them any causal (causality) communication.
The next step on the way – association by similarity (and differences) items. The most obvious example of such an association is made by three year old child definition turkey: “Turkey – it is a duck with a bow”.
One particular notion of the child is determined by other, and in this his fault; but most of his attraction to the classification of material objects on the grounds of species and genera, to compare them with other objects is a reliable basis for all of his future mental activity.
II. PULLOVERS
But, of course, the child has a child, not learned pedant.
If all the enormity of their intellectual work, he never feels the mental worker, a tireless seeker of truth.
He is playing, then jumps, sings, the fighting, it helps her grandmother or mother hosting, the naughty, it draws, He is listening to a fairy tale, and comprehension of life around him never perceived it as a special challenge of its existence.
Never give out, he thought of all his life practice, and the same way of thinking it at this time is very unstable, intermittently and easily distracted towards.
Long-term focus of thought is not peculiar to the early preschool age.
often it happens, what, creating one or another hypothesis to explain the unexplained phenomena, child in a moment forgets about it and then improvises new.
In the end, he refined little by little to a true understanding of reality, but, of course, You can not expect, that the incorrect hypothesis immediately followed by a more correct.
He goes to great truth zigzags.
Sometimes his mind is very peaceful cohabitation two directly opposite views. It can be seen from the wonderful phrase of one four-Muscovite:
– God exists, but I it, of course, I do not believe.
Grandmother inspired her dogmas of orthodox religion, father, opposite, involved in its godlessness, and she, wanting to please, and one or the other side, He expressed simultaneously in one tiny phrase and belief and disbelief in God, discover more complaisance and (in this case!) very little concern for the truth:
– God exists, but I it, of course, I do not believe.
Expressing two positions, mutually exclusive, the child does not even notice, he turned absurd.
– And God knows, we do not believe it?
Any social, neither biologically plan tyute truth not even need him, and because he willingly played by the concept, easy to create a variety of fiction, and then disposes of them so, otherwise, at one's own sweet will.
Four-year girl playing a wooden horse, like a doll, and whispers:
– Horse wearing a ponytail and went for a walk.
Mother interrupts her: Horse tails are not attachable, they can not be put on and take off.
– What are you, Mama, silly! After all, I'm!
Of further turns, that the truth about the inseparability of horse tails have long known the girl, but that's why it can operate on the opposite concept, creating an imaginary situation, in order to play with his tailless horse, like a doll, – that is, to wear, undress her.
The more the gaze, the more I see, that our “adults” relation to the truth are often alien to the child – especially during games time.
What games does not only captivate the child! Among them are very prominent place it belongs to semantic games, the expediency of which is obvious: child as it trains for the future of mental activity.
One of these games lies in the fact, that the child, I heard two different interpretations of the same facts, He agrees at the same time “believe” both.
Obviously, in such moments, the truth seems to him diverse, plastic, allowing an unlimited number of options.
There is quite applicable apt English word halfbelief! PULLOVERS, faith half.
This pullover has a different degree of, and sometimes it seems to me, that the child manages their own free will.
Five-year Lucy once asked the director of the Kiev Gregory Prokofyevich Grigorieva:
– Why trams running to and fro?
He replied:
– Because tram live.
– And why sparks?
– angry, wants to sleep, and he is forced to run – so he snorts sparks.
– And true! – cried Lucy. – He is not alive and not angry.
– If not for a living, I would not run.
– Not, there is such a machine, I told the Pope, I know!
Grigoriev was discouraged by its realism and stopped. But after a while he heard, to his great astonishment, like Lucy teaches girlfriend:
– And you never know? If not for a living, I am running to and fro? See – spark: tram angry, wants to sleep, I am running about the day.
A friend listens to her and believe her just enough, as it is necessary in this case.
Lucy continues to enjoy the hypothesis that a living and very angry tram. And though she knows perfectly, what tram, it is not without success, strikes out of his mind the truth, interferes with its semantic game.
For a child at times not so much adapts to the truth, how much truth is adapting to her for imaginary play situation.
My granddaughter Masha, since the age of two, She expressed her attraction to fairy tale, a fantastic view of the world with the help of a word “as if”.
Here is an excerpt from the diary of her mother:

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