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FIRST

I

Is youth really Gorky was so painful? When you read his book "Childhood", it seems, you read about prison: so there fights, zubotychin, Kill. Thieves and murderers surrounded his cradle, and, right, not their fault, if he did not go their way. They zealously devoted child all the secrets of his craft - hooliganism, ozorstva, mutilation. Accuse them of negligence can not be: The course was a systematic and comprehensive, visual - teaching method. The boy showed every day mangled skull and fractured cheekbone. he showed, in the woman's head to drive sharp iron rods, how to get into a blind finger-hot incandescent thimble; as a cudgel to maim his own mother; like throwing bricks at the native father, spewing at him idiotically-vile abuse. It diligently prepared to hard labor, another prepares to university, and that, that he did not get there, Pedagogy is the greatest paradox.
Old family tradition demanded of him this career. Among his closest relatives, he could proudly call several professors stabbing, arsonists, thugs and murderers. Both of his maternal uncle, - Uncle Yasha and Misha, - the two before his death, nailed their wives, each one, and the other two, pushed his wife into a hole, killed his friend Gypsy - and was not killed with an ax, and cross!
Cross, as the murder weapon, - this Golgotha ​​met Gorky, when he was not yet eight years. At ten he himself knew, that is to grab a knife and in a rage to rush with a knife on a man. he saw, his own mother beaten in the chest with his boot despicable, men's long leg. His grandmother he saw bloody, ff were from lunch to dinner, broke her hand, smashed her head, and both his grandfather so fiercely tortured people, that one of them were exiled to Siberia.
Who among Russian famous writers could say about myself: "I was a thief"? But Gorky was a child sniskival currently stealing food. "We have developed a number of techniques currently, successfully assist us in this matter ", - he says of himself and his comrades.
Of his comrades only one averse to the profession, Uncle Peter Church robbed, Roma women kidnapped in the bazaar provisions, ligature, Kostroma and wood pigeon stole poles and tos. Gorky made a specialty of stealing church prosphoras.
Later, as a teenager, he served in a shoe store, he inspired and unctuously ingratiating:
- Would you, cheloveche God, stole my clogs, but? Steal, but?
And when he entered the icon-painting workshop, he stole the icon and the Psalter .
Until now, we thought, that middle-class life - a hopeless boredom and only: fleas, cakes with carrots, Ikot, waste; but it turns out, this life (by Gorky) have boiling fierce passions, bloody tragedy, continuous war. How about the usual, He casually tells us that, that one of his neighbors every day, sat by the window and fired a gun at passersby. When Gorky grew, some hunter stabbed him in the right side of the body twenty-seven pieces bekasinoy shot - great live, for no reason, rhyme or reason! His whole book is full of wild cries: "Smashed on the stove!», "I'll kill u!», "Still a stone on the head with something rotten!»
Not, It does not look like "Childhood" Gorky's "Childhood" Tolstoy! Ever for a school essay topic will be offered in schools: a comparative analysis of both "Childhood" and high-school students will prove victorious, Manors that childhood was better than grimy. After all, by minor Tolstoy did not carry people in chains executed in the nearest area, after Tolstoy's not pinpointing unconscious, because the house, where Tolstoy lived eight, not side by side with the house of tolerance. Because Tolstoy exclaimed:
- "Happy, happy, irreversible time of childhood! How not to love, not cherish the memories of her!»
A martyr grimy pedagogy does not repeat these words. "Similarly, the skin flayed me with the heart" - that was his childlike sense. Scalded with boiling water heart.
This wicked war of all not destroyed Gorky all, but tempered his. Thanks to her, he became a fighter. AND, when I read in his autobiographical book, he smeared his hated stepfather seat of the chair glue; in cap hated Uncle Peter, he poured caustic pepper, so that he sneezed for an hour; as, avenging the insult to her grandmother, He stole his grandfather and calendar, cut them into small pieces, shaved his head at Saints, though he knew, that for it to be a cruel punishment, - when I read about such small buntikah small Gorky, I feel, it is - a prophecy of the future indomitable bully:

You, a life, appointed for battle!
You, a heart, thirsty storms!

Try four Gorky locked in a cabin with a key. He grabbed a bottle of milk and hit a bottle on the door! Glass on iron! Nothing, that shattered bottle, and milk natechet boots.
Obstinacy was its main feature. An old woman told him over dinner: 'Brother, Aleshenka, why are you in such a hurry to eat, - and such large pieces!"It took mouth piece, again I put it on a fork and held it: "Take, cars shame!»
A teacher at the school told: "You, brother, not shout, I am not afraid of you!»
In "Childhood" about such exploits is narrated frequently: slightly, eg, Gorky saw little, that five burly burghers piled on top of one man and tear him, dogs dog, he immediately to the entire cloud cobblestones rushed to rescue battered. And when for any faults whipped his mother, he warned her quietly and firmly, what, If the problem persists, He bit her hand, escape in the icy field and there freezes, - dies, and will not give up.
Here it is manifested when the child is the romance of the storm and riot, and horkovschyna, which later, In pre-revolutionary time, created in our literature era.
Bitter - almost from the cradle roughneck, and "Childhood" is an extensive catalog of his rampage: it breaks grandfathers wooden spoon, the prohibition in the cellar of a woman-offender, it will throw in a huge man with brick:

ABOUT, battle happiness!
Madness of the brave -
That is the wisdom of life!

Even running barefoot on a rope, Gorky understood, that in the battle - happiness. No wonder it is so drawn to the boy soldiers. Him and now, in his old, fun to remember his childhood battle:
"The boys from the ravine began to throw stones at me. I am happy to answer them in the same "…
"It was good to fight one against many"…
"The fight was a favorite and the only pleasure my"…
So small street fights was prepared by this great fighter. Rozhamy, fists and stones created from it petrel.
And it is wonderful, that most of his fights have been jousting. Almost all - in the protection of human. Very rarely - for no reason, all of a sudden - the boy spit on his bald head man, and more often - he is the defender of offended. His motto is - resistance to evil. For any offense - currently there, Do other - it is in the "Childhood" meets insult, wanting neither to forgive, nor reconciled.

II

Although the "childhood" is portrayed as murders and abominations, this, in fact, funny book. The least bitter whining and complaining. Despite its boring-violent life, People for him funny, entertaining, picturesque, curious, whimsical, and each of "childhood" page hear the word gay:
- forgive you, lyudyshky, earthly creation, all is forgiven, living Boyko! Excellent position to be a man on earth! lovely you, purple devils!
And it is written, "Childhood" fun, cheerful colors. Everything in this book is fine, difficult, lucky, cunningly, sonorously. Each letter - elegant, each page - with a twist. No sluggish or dead word. Never before has the bitter did not write so easily and freely. Finally, he created something worthy of his immense poetic power. AND, although in his collected works "Childhood" is the twentieth book, but for those who love art - it is - the first. Previous nineteen volumes - a stage here, in this book. In Russia, there was no memories, that would have been written so brilliantly; Each chapter is a separate story, completely finished, each episode dramatized, brought up to the highest effektnosti, - though now in the cinema, on the screen! Fun run one after the other nimble, pretty cupola, tumbling and playing leapfrog. And what energetic painting: a whole bunch of fellows Bitter sculpts, just zabavlyayasy; four stroke - and ready, brush and so she walks by his motley canvas, and he could hardly keep up with her, and with a cheerful surprise watches, What fun he goes panorama. That's the real word: view. Bitter recently became panoramistom decorator - from that time, he "Confession" wrote. And in the "Confessions", and "Township Okurov", and "Kozhemyakin" - everywhere diversity and breadth of the panorama, a lot of fun, written parties, temperamental scope composition, the brightest colors; but I never felt so confident, relaxed and merry brush, as in childhood". In "Childhood" on each page much, that pleases his skill masters. This joy is the master and transferred us.
Wonderful, how old age was drawn to Gorky paints. In his first books he - singer (more often!) speaker, and in his last - painter. his eyes became insatiable, vigilantly and I saw the world as amazing colors, which did not dream that, who recited the "Song of the Falcon".
But whence this joyful painting? Is it possible to be happy, telling, how to hurt and maim? Gorky himself explains his joy hopes for a better future. In the story "Childhood" he writes:
"Not only the amazing life of our, that there are so prolific and greasy layer of any beastly stuff, but the, that still sprout triumphantly bright through this layer, healthy and creative, exciting invincible hope for the revival of our life in light, human ".
More recently, the hope of "rebirth to our light and human life 'is increasingly manifested in the works of Gorky. Let speck of dust to the dust particle, but the magical realm to build a happy. And it is important to Gorky: people to become happy, that women are not kicked in the stomach, to avoid throwing bricks at fathers, to not tortured children. In "Childhood" he asked his grandmother:
- small always hit?
And my grandmother said calmly:
- Is always.
She even could not imagine, that there is so little, which do not beat. A bitter and only about dreams, to quickly ended this bestial life and the beginning of human. And the animal must necessarily end, run out of all these "leaden abominations", because, as he writes in "Childhood", "Russian people are so more healthy and young soul, that overcomes and will overcome them ".
before, dreaming of the happiness of the people, Gorky praised anarchic rebellion, but now, after that, he debunked Chelkash, he believes no longer in rebel, but an employee. Finalize humanity - to happiness. The humanity he sees a happy gang of builders of the planetary future . And since all his faith, he loves to express aphorisms, now his book is full of aphorisms, which is famous for the work:
- Any work - prayer Future.
- The working people of the land is the only source of deification.
- People are dying, and their works are.
- Acts - the beginning of all beginnings.
- The work is always worth more than money.
- Man - worker worldwide.
Work will save the world. Whatever you create for yourself, you create for me and for all. Here frankpledge World, choral work. working, you enrichest universe.
In his famous article, "Two Souls" Bitter brands east, Asian soul for, that the eastern soul pathos unknown acts, foreign construction happiness and creativity, and which he lavishes praise to the western European soul for, it - soul-busybody, soul-creatrix! And everywhere, even in the "Italian Fairy Tales", embedded in his Hymn to Labor:
"It was the work, my job, holy work, signor, I tell you, Yes!"- boasts an Italian worker in his fairy tale" The Tunnel ". This worker fell to great happiness: He dug with other Simplon Tunnel, he won his job invincible mountain, and the memory of this work fills him with joy and pride:
"When, finally, collapsing the reservoir rock and in the hole flashed red fire plume and someone black, drenched with tears of joy, and then the face, and even torches and faces, and rattling cries of victory, shouts of joy - oh, This is the best day of my life, and, remembering his, I feel: not, I have not lived in vain!.. And when we came out of the ground in the sun, many, lying on a pile of earth, kissed her, It is crying - and it was so good, how good tale! Yes, kissing conquered Mount, I kissed the ground - in the day and close and clear it became to me, signor, and I loved it, as a woman… Of course, I went to my father, о, Yes! I went to his grave, He tapped his foot on the ground and said,, he wanted it:
- Father, - made! - I said. - People - won. done, father!»
Most involved in this work - to Gorky unforgettable joy. How about the bright holiday spirit he remembers about the difficult and painful night, when the Volga loaders, and it including, unloaded near Kazan sunken barge.
"We worked so, like hungry Labor, as if the long-awaited fun throwing from hand to hand bags chetyrehpudovye, worn with bales on their backs. worked, play, with spring enthusiasm of children, with the drunken joy to do, sweeter which only embraces a woman… I have lived in this night of joy, I have not tested. Soul illumined desire to live life in this half-mad excited about doing… Hugging and kissing like those two-legged beasts, so smart and clever in, so selflessly carried away by it " .
Gorky was the first Russian writers so religiously believed in the work. Only a poet-shop, son and grandson Burlaka artisan could make our Russian books such unprecedented topic. Before him, only poetry was not doing in our books and Souls. is he, the only artist in Russia, before everyone was delighted at the thought of, that mankind team of multi-million dollar suit for themselves your planet, rebuilds his hell in paradise.

working, we build for posterity Crystal Palace, where there will be no love interest, us go down, —
Neither beskrestnyh graves, neither slave.

All the pathos of poetry Gorky - in the care of such a happy future. Gorky did not God-seeker, not truth-seeker, it is only a seeker of happiness: Fortunately for him more truth, svyatee God, - and if God does not give happiness to mankind, Bitter zabrakuet such nykchemnoho God. And if the truth does not give happiness to mankind, let him live a lie! When the wicked Luke in his play "The Lower Depths" the most shameless lies made happy for a minute people, Gorky gave him his blessing: what you want, Only make happy and glad tidings!
Recently, this wicked Luke reappeared on his page in the story "Uteshenishko little people" and again, out of pity for the people, fraudulently to fool them, to give them if not happiness, then at least a respite in misery: I gave them some fool for a righteous and God-bearing prophet, because, - as he explains himself, - "it's still a little people uteshenishko, sometimes feel sorry for them; very mayatno live, very bitter. A lived-were-bitch bastards, a Nazi righteous ".

III

When Gorky was twenty years, He composed a poem in prose and verse, "The Song of the old oak tree".
This "Song", on the current sense of Gorky, It was sufficiently bad, but then he was convinced, what, people should read it, and they immediately build their lives in a new way:
"I was convinced, - he wrote, - that good of humanity, I read my poem, positively astonished before the novelty of the whole, I told him, true story of my shake the hearts of all the inhabitants of the earth, and immediately after that leaped honest, pure, happy life, - and more besides that I do not want to " .
Since that time has passed for thirty years or more, but Gorky and now has not changed. Each of his work only after written, to transform mankind. Bitter, when he writes,, firmly believes, what, people should read "Kozhemyakin" or "Spouses Orlov", - and leaped honest, pure, happy life. In addition, and more than that he did not wish to.
sorry for the people; people live poorly; must, to live better, - this is the only motive of simple stories, novels, poems and plays of Gorky, repeating the farther, more often.
First Bitter was ruthless writer. But before the revolution he began to preach pity. In his last words of the book pity at every step, so even strange to read. contrary credibility, if agreed in advance, all new characters, one by one of Gorky stubbornly repeat the word sorry, Bitter and does not allow them to get away from the page, as long as they do not say a word. In the end, the repetitive demonstration of compassion seem quite deliberately; But it is remarkable that the stubborn persistence, which demonstrates the bitter shame. During the war, he published a continuation of "Childhood", autobiographical novel "People", and there is in almost every chapter speaks about the pity.
Here Pasha Odintsov, Bogomaz, round-teen, She is lying on the floor and crying:
- What are you?
- I feel sorry for all to death… What a pity to me of all, господи! ("In people", see. XIV).
Here grandmother Bitter - roams the woods with him and said, word for word:
- How do people think about something, so I will feel sorry for all (see. WE).
Here Smouri, cook, sitting at the stern of the steamer and said word for word:
- I feel sorry for you… and all it is a pity… (see. V).
Tatyana in "The Woman" also says word for word:
- Lord, sorry for all, All a life naskroz, of all the people!
And humpback Yudin to sketch Gorky's "The Book":
- What a pity all!.. What a pity people!
And Paul, in "Mother" novel:
- Sorry for all.
And in the novel "Confession" - Matthew:
- It's a pity I was all.
- I feel sorry for the people, countless lost a lot of his vain! - Silant'ev says in the story "The Gorge".
And a great fishing line in his essay "The Caretaker," insists:
- I feel sorry for you… Oh, I'm sorry for all .
Nine people were word for word: sorry for all . Not that, that they felt sorry for one or two, - not, sorry for them all, they regret the whole world . In common is a very rare feeling - compassion for the world, to all mankind; pity commoner concrete: to this or to that suffering - suffering today, before his eyes. But Gorky's heroes repeated one after the other, that they feel sorry for all, the whole universe . In the special moments of their life spans their delight humanity, when they like soraspinayutsya world.
Gorky so expensive these words: sorry for all, that it is not in every mouth puts them, but only add to favorites, in the best, in the mouth of your favorite characters. At the same time, he sees the highest beauty of their, - in, they sit, talk, but suddenly shone over, unbearable love for all. Gorky in his novel "People" and ascribes to himself the same sudden inspiration mercy for all mankind.
"I felt a painful tide of self-pity, and to all the people", - he says in the tenth chapter and with great monotony of multiple points, that in his youth, happened, someone or meet, and regrets that, to the brim filled with pity. And when, in the first chapter of this story, he met some Sasha, he wrote about it:
"Sasha things caused in me a sense of lingering pity".
When in the second chapter of his street appeared Kostroma friend, he wrote about that:
"I was… sorry Kostroma ".

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