Korney Chukovsky (real name - Nikolai Korneichuk, 19  марта 1882, St. Petersburg, — 28 October 1969, Moscow) - Russian Soviet poet, publicist, literary critic, translator and literary critic, children's writer, journalist. Father writers Nicholas and Lydia Chukovsky Korneevicha Chukovskaya. As of 2015 year was the most published in Russian by the author of children's literature: for the year it was issued 132 books and pamphlets circulation 2,4105 million copies.
Nikolai Korneichuk, after having taken himself pen name "Korney Chukovsky", He was born in St. Petersburg 19 (31) марта 1882 year in peasant Catherine Osipovna Korneychukovoy; his father was a hereditary honorary citizen Emanuel Solomonovich Levenson (1851—?), whose family lived servant mother Korney Chukovsky. Their marriage was not officially registered, since it required his father's baptism, but they have lived together for at least three years. To Nicholas was born the eldest daughter Maria (Mary). Shortly after the birth of Nikolai's father left his illegitimate family, He married "to a woman of his circle" and moved to Baku, where he opened "The first typographical partnership"; Chukovsky's mother was forced to move to Odessa.
Childhood Nikolai Korneichuk held in Odessa and Nikolaev. In Odessa, the family settled in the wing, Macri in the house on the street Novorybnoy, № 6. AT 1887 They were replaced Korneychukovy apartment, moving at: Barshmana house, rope lane, № 3. Five-year Nicholas was sent to kindergarten Madame Behteevoy, stay in which he left following memories: "We marched to the music, draw pictures. The oldest among us was a curly, Negro boy with lips, whose name was Vladimir Jabotinsky. That's when I met the future national hero of Israel - in 1888 or 1889 years!!!». For a while, the future writer studied at the Odessa High School second (subsequently it became the fifth). A classmate of his at that time was Boris Zhitkov (in the future as a writer and traveler), with whom the young Korney began a friendly relationship. Chukovsky graduated from high school and failed: from the fifth grade he was expelled, according to his own statements, because of the low birth. These events he described in an autobiographical story "Silver Emblem".
The metric Nicholas and his sister Mary, as an illegitimate, there was no middle name; in other documents the pre-revolutionary period of his surname indicated differently - "V." (in the certificate of marriage and the baptism of his son Nicholas, subsequently stuck mostly biographies later as part of the "real name"; given by godfather), "S.", "Emmanuilovich", "Manuilovich", "Emelianovich", Sister Maroussia wore patronymic "Emmanuilovna" or "Manuilovna". Since the beginning of literary activity Korniychuk used the pseudonym "Korney Chukovsky", which was later joined by a fictitious first name - "I.". After the revolution, the combination of "Roots I. Chukovsky" was his real name, and surname.
According to the memoirs. Chukovsky, he "never had that luxury, as a father, or even grandfather ", that in his youth and in his youth he served for a constant source of shame and mental suffering.
His children - Nicholas, Lydia, Boris and Maria died in childhood (Murochka), the focus of many nursery rhymes father - were (at least, after the revolution) Chukovsky surname and patronymic Korneevich / Korneevna.
Journalistic activities before the October Revolution
WITH 1901 Chukovskij year began to write articles in the "Odessa News". In literature Chukovskogo introduced his close friend gymnasium, The journalist. E. Jabotinsky. Jabotinsky was also a guarantor of the groom at the wedding Chukovsky and Maria Borisovna Goldfeld.
then, 1903 year Chukovskij, as the only correspondent, English-speaking (who are trained by their own "Teach English" Ohlendorf), and the temptation of high salary for those days - the publisher promised 100 rubles a month - send the correspondent of "Odessa News" in London, where he went with his young wife. In addition to "Odessa News» English Chukovskogo article published in "Southern Review" and in some Kiev newspapers. But because Russia acted irregularly fees, and then completely stopped. Pregnant wife had to send back to Odessa. Chukovskij moonlighting correspondence catalogs of the British Museum. But in London Chukovskij thoroughly acquainted with English literature - Dickens read in the original, Thackeray.
When he returned to Odessa in the end 1904 of the year, Chukovsky lived with his family on the street Piazza number 2 and plunged into the events of the revolution 1905 of the year. Chukovsky found himself captured by revolution. He has twice visited the insurgent battleship "Potemkin", inter alia by taking letters to loved ones in the rebel sailors. In St. Petersburg, began to publish the satirical magazine "Signal". Among its authors were such well-known writers like Kuprin, Fedor Sologub and Taffy. After the fourth number, he was arrested for "lese majeste". His lawyer defended the famous Gruzenberg, has achieved an excuse. Chukovsky was under arrest 9 days.
AT 1906 by Korney Ivanovich arrived in the Finnish town Kuokkala (now Repino, The resort area (St. Petersburg)), svol where familiarity with the artist Ilya Repin and writer Korolenko. It Chukovsky Repin convinced seriously treat your writing and prepare the book "Distant near" reminiscences. In Kuokkala Chukovsky lived about 10 years old. The combination of words and Chukovskij Kuokkala formed "Chukokkala" (invented Repin) - the name of a handwritten comic almanac, Roots I. which led up to the last days of his life.
AT 1907 Chukovsky was published translations of Walt Whitman. The book became popular, which increased Chukovsky known in literary circles. Chukovskij became an influential critic, mockingly opinions about popular at that time the works of popular literature: books and Lydia Chara Anastasia Verbitskaya, "Pinkertonovschine" and other, wittily defended futurists - as in Articles, and in public lectures - from traditional criticism of attacks (Kuokkala met Mayakovsky and later was friends with him), although the Futurists were not always grateful to him for that; developed their own recognizable style (reconstruction of the psychological make the writer on the basis of numerous quotations from it).
AT 1916 Chukovskij year with a delegation of the State Duma again visited England. AT 1917 Patterson, a book "On the Jewish detachment in Gallipoli" (the Jewish Legion in the British Army) edited and with a foreword by Chukovsky.
After the revolution continued his criticism Chukovsky, issuing two most famous books about his works of contemporaries - "The Book of Alexander Blok" ("Alexander Blok as a man and a poet") and "Akhmatova and Mayakovsky". Soviet time the circumstances were ungrateful for the critical activities, and Chukovsky had this talent, "buried in the ground", what he later regretted.
AT 1908 he published his critical essays about writers Chekhov, Balmont, block, Sergeyev-Tsensky, kuprine, Gorky, Artsybashev, Merezhkovsky, Bryusov and other, a compilation "From Chekhov to the present day", incubate for about three years of publication.
WITH 1917 Chukovskij year began for long-term work of Nekrasov, his favorite poet. His efforts came the first Soviet collection of poems Nekrasov. Chukovskij finished work on it only in 1926 year, reworking a lot of manuscripts and to provide the texts of scientific comments. Monograph "Mastery of Nekrasov", published in 1952 year, reprinted many times, and 1962 year Chukovsky was awarded the Lenin Prize for her. After 1917 year managed to publish a significant part of Nekrasov's poems, which have either been previously banned by the tsarist censorship, or they had been imposed "veto" right holders. About a quarter of the currently known lines of poetry Nekrasov was put into circulation was Korney Chukovsky. Besides, in the 1920s, they were discovered and published the manuscript prose works Nekrasov ("The Life and Adventures of Tikhon Thatched", "The Thin Man" and others).
In addition Nekrasov, Chukovskij studied the biography and works of other writers of the XIX century (Chekhov, Dostoevsky, Sleptsova), which is the subject, in particular, His book "People and books of the sixties", I participated in the drafting and editing of many publications. The closest in spirit to imagine a writer Chukovsky believed Chekhov.
Nursery rhymes and fairy tales
Passion for children's verbiage, proslavivšee Čukovskogo, It began relatively late, when he was already a famous critic. AT 1916 year Chukovsky compiled a collection of "Christmas tree", and wrote his first fairy tale "Crocodile". AT 1923 year came his famous tale "Moidodyr" and "Cockroach", at 1924 year "Barmalej".
Despite, that fairy tales were printed in large quantities and withstood many editions, they do not fully meet the objectives of Soviet pedagogy. In February 1928 year in "Pravda" published an article by the Deputy People's Commissar of Education of the RSFSR N. TO. Krupskaya "On" Crocodile "Chukovsky": "This chatter - lack of respect for the child. First, it attract the carrot - cheerful, innocent rhymes and comical images, and incidentally give swallow some dregs, which will not pass in vain for him. I think, "Crocodile" to give our guys do not have to ... "
At this time, in an environment of party critics and editors soon arises term - "chukovschina". Having received criticism, Chukovsky in December 1929 year in the "Literary Gazette" published a letter, which "would deny" the old fairy tales, and announced its intention to change the direction of his work, writing a book "Merry collective farms" poems, but does not keep his promises. Collection and goes out of his pen, and the next tale will be written only through 13 years old.
Despite the criticism of "chukovschiny", during this period in a number of cities in the Soviet Union installed sculptures based on the tales Chukovsky. The most famous fountain "Barmalej" ("Children's dance", "Children and the crocodile") work of a prominent Soviet sculptor P. R. Iodko, established in 1930 year on a standard project in Stalingrad and other cities in Russia and Ukraine. The composition is an illustration of the same name tale Chukovskogo. Stalingrad Fountain glorified as one of the few buildings, survivors of the Battle of Stalingrad.
In life Chukovskogo the beginning of the 1930s there was another passion - the study of the psyche of children and of, they master speech. He recorded his observations of children, their verbal creativity in the book "From two to five ' (1933).
In 1930 Chukovskij much studied the theory of literary translation ("Art of Translation" 1936 year re-released before the war, at 1941 year, called "high art") and the actual translation into Russian (M. Twain, ABOUT. Wilde, R. Kipling and others, including "retellings" form for children).
He begins to write his memoirs, on which he worked until his death ("Contemporaries" in "Lives of Remarkable People" series). Posthumously published "Diaries 1901-1969".
During the war, evacuated to Tashkent. The younger son Boris was killed at the front.
As I reported to the Central Committee of the NKGB, during the war spoke Chukovskij: "... With all my heart I wish Hitler's death and the collapse of his delusions. With the fall of Nazi despotism world democracy will rise to face the Soviet despotism. Will wait".
1 марта 1944 in the newspaper "Pravda" published an article P. Yudin, "Come and harmful to the concoction. Chukovsky ", in which the analysis was set published in 1943 in Tashkent book Chukovsky "could overcome Barmaley" (Dolittle is at war with a ferocity and its king Barmaley), and this book is recognized in Article harmful:
tale For. Chukovsky - unhealthy concoction, which is able to distort the representation of children in the contemporary reality.
"War tale" By. Chukovsky characterizes the author, as a man, or do not understand the writer's duty in World War II, consciously or trivialize the great challenges raising children in the spirit of socialist patriotism.
Chukovsky and Children's Bible
In 1960 K. Chukovskij conceived retelling of the Bible for children. For this project, he has attracted writers and men of letters and carefully edited their work. The project itself has been very difficult due to the anti-religious position of the Soviet regime. In particular, demanded by Chukovsky, that the words "God" and "Jews" are not mentioned in the book; literary forces for God was coined the nickname "The Wizard of Yahweh". The book is called "The Tower of Babel, and other ancient legend" was published by the publishing house "Children's Literature" in 1968 year. However, the entire print run was destroyed by the authorities. The circumstances of the publication ban later described Valentin Berastau, one of the authors of the book: "It was the height of the Great Cultural Revolution in China. Red Guards, noting the publication, loudly demanded to smash his head to the old revisionists Chukovskii, clog up the minds of Soviet children's religious ravings. The West responded to the headline "The new discovery Red Guards", and our authorities have reacted the usual way ". The book was published in 1990 year.
In recent years, Chukovsky - a national darling, winner of a number of state awards and holder of the Order, at the same time maintaining contacts with dissidents (Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Litvinovy, a prominent human rights activist was also his daughter Lydia). Dacha in Peredelkino, where he had always lived the last years, he arranged a meeting with the neighboring children, I talked with them, I read poetry, invited to meet famous people, famous pilots, artists, writers, poets. Peredelkino children, long become adults, still remember these children gatherings at Chukovsky's dacha.
AT 1966 he signed a letter 25 figures of culture and science of the general secretary of the CPSU L. AND. Brezhnev against the rehabilitation of Stalin.
Dead Roots I. 28 October 1969 year from hepatitis. Dacha in Peredelkino, where the writer lived for most of his life, now operates its museum.
From the memories of Yu. D. oksman:
“Lydia Chukovskaya previously referred to the Board of the Moscow branch of the Writers' Union a list of those, whom her father asked not to invite to the funeral. probably, why not see Arkady Vasilyev and other reactionaries from the literature. It came to say goodbye very few Muscovites: in the newspapers was not a single line about the upcoming funeral service. People had, but, like a funeral Ehrenburg, Paustovskogo, Police - Darkness. Besides uniformed, many "boys" in the civilian, with sullen, scornful faces. Boys started off, that surrounded the chair in the hall, do not allow anyone to linger, take a seat. I came seriously ill Shostakovich. The lobby was not allowed to take off my coat. The hall forbidden to sit in a chair. There was a scandal.
A memorial service. With stuttering. Mikhalkov says bombastic words, which does not tally with his indifferent, some even disregard tone: "From the Writers' Union ...", "From the Union of Writers of the RSFSR ...", "From the publisher" Children's Literature "...", "From the Ministry of Education and the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences ..." All this is said with a stupid significance, how, probably, porters of the last century during a passing guest coach called Count so-and-so Prince. Yes whom we bury, finally? Bureaucratic bosses or cheerful and mocking clever Korney? He rattled off his "lesson" And. Barto. Kassil performed complex verbal pirouette for, listeners to understand, as far as he personally was close to the late. Only L. Panteleev, breaking the blockade officious, woefully mismanaged and said a few words about the civil face of Chukovskogo. Relatives Korney Ivanovich asked to speak h. Cape, but when in a crowded room, she sat down to the table, to sketch the text of his speech, I approached her KGB general Ilyin (in the world - the Secretary for organizational matters of the Moscow Writers' Organization) and correctly, but firmly told her, that the act would not let her.”
He was buried in the cemetery in Peredelkino.